Bayraklı, The Ancient Smyrna

Bayraklı is the location of Ancient Smyrna and when it is mentioned the first name which come to my mind is this of my friend the late Prof. Ekrem Akurgal and his excavations there. But let’s read a passage from his book Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey:

“The investigation of East Greek civilization on a stratigraphical basis started with the excavations at Bayraklı. The first excavations between 1948 and 1951 were undertaken jointly by Ankara University and the British School of Archeology of Athens under the direction of John Cook and the author of this book (Ekrem Akurgal). After the death of Prof. Akurgal they continued under the direction of his wife, Meral Akurgal and actually with the support of the Izmir Chamber of Commerce they reach a point were visits can be effected, to admire at the Bayraklı Mound (Tepekule), the 7th century B.C. Temple of Athena, the Fortication Walls, the Monumental Fountain and the Necropolis.

The vestiges in Bayraklı confirms that Smyrna was an Aiolian then an Ionian settlement which was destructed by the Lydian King Allyates, around 600.

On the heights to the north it is believed that was the location for the tomb of King Tantalos. George. E.Bean in his book Aegean Turkey mentions that this tomb of VIth century B.C. could be of a governor or an high officer assigned by the Persians.
Due to the foundation of a new Smyrna by Alexander’s general Lyssimachos at Mount Pagos (today Kadifekale) Bayraklı lost its importance in ancient times.”

Origin of the Name

Karara mentions that Bayraklı was called in the antiquity Tantalos and Vari during the Byzantine period. Prof. Çınar Atay writes that the origin of the Bayraklı name comes from a name of a religious man (dede) who lived and had his tomb here. According to Adil Akçamlı, the author of “Bir Zamanlar Bayraklı [Once upon a time in Bayraklı]”, the name Bayraklı originated from a brigand who had always a flag (bayrak) in his hand and used to assault from this location the passing caravans.

Bayraklı in the XIXth and XXth Centuries

With the road liaison of Cordelio to Smyrna, Bayraklı district progressed. There were in the second half of the XIX century many immigrations from the Aegean islands as well as later on with the Balkan wars there were a lot of newcomers in this region. In the beginning houses were built without a proper streets plan as also the irregularity of the topography did not easily permit it. However already we could remark some Mansions with gardens in existence. There are remarkable improvements in the 1860s at the seafront. According to Adil Akçamlı the Greek architect Andon Gavano1 constructed beautiful houses in harmony with the environment (e.g. Yahya Hayati Paşa and Pittaco mansions).

Finally with the new 5 km. road linking Bornova to Bayraklı in 1885 followed by the construction of a pier at the Bayraklı quais by the Maritime Company Hamidiye the seafront gained a lot of prestige and numerous wealthy families came to install themselves here in the first decade of the XXth century, as emphasized by Prof. Çınar Atay Atay in the beautiful volume ‘19. Yüzyıl İzmir Fotoğrafları [19th century Smyrna Photographs]’.

Karara mentions in his Cordelio book that Bayraklı was a characteristic sea side locality with beautiful houses under the sun and with verandas overlooking the sea and gardens full of flowers. The residents breathed the fresh air of the gulf and contemplated the golden sand of the sea front and the beautiful view.

Bayraklı due to its picturesque landscape also took a special place in the celebrated locally active photographers of the latter part of the 19th century: Svaboda, Bedford, Rubelin, Sebah, Bonfils, Pierre Vassel.

Population and Administration

According to Karara there were in the period close to 1920 about 2400 inhabitants from whom 1400 were Greeks, 350 Italians (Levantines), 250 Armenians and 40 Turks. Bayraklı had its own municipality including the Zarhana (Salhane) which was between Mersinli and Bayraklı and had 60 inhabitants of which 40 were Greek and 20 Turks. The mayor of Bayraklı was Ioanis Ioanidis and the members of the council Dimitrios Tzanavaris, Vassilios Raikopoulos, Thrassivoulos Charalambidis and the Armenians Fiourlian and Baronian. The Muhtar [village representative] was Nicolaos Dragatsi.

The Churches and Schools

We know from Kararas that there was the Greek Orthodox church, the Church of Analipseos and a Greek School with four classes. There was also an Armenian Church Surptakavor and one Armenian School. According to Adil Akçamlı the actual Merkez Camii [central mosque] was the converted Greek Orthodox Church which was built in 1845. He also mentioned that there was a cemetery opposite Tepekule close to the today’s Talatpaşa Elementary School.

The Capucine Monastery – St Antonio di Padova Church - own website -

It looks like this church had a very interesting history according to Fr. Vicenzo Rino Succi “La Chiesa S. Antonio di Padova – a Bayraklı”. The land where these buildings are situated on the heights of Bayraklı was owned by Yahya Hayati Paşa who entered in association with the Greek entrepreneur of French nationality Thrasivoulo Pittaco2 to valorize the land and they thought rightly that if they donated land for their churches the Christians will be interested to build houses, considering also that the locality had a beautiful view. All the steps to build this church started around 1899 with the initiative of the Capucins and the first residents of Bayraklı. In the above mentioned book of Fr. Vicenzo Rino Succi, there are many details including the petition made to Monseigneur Timoni3, the Archibishop of Izmir, for the construction of the Church. We see as signatories the residents T. Mattecich, G. Delattola, John Livorness, Widow E. Livorness4, A. Marcara5, Widow V. Johnson, Luigi Cirry, Policarpe Tius, Mme Warren, François Jamafta6.

Finally towards 1904, all the permissions were granted for the construction of the church and the work started. There was a lot of enthusiasm, the church was consacrated to St Antonio di Padova, and as a second patron St Expedite with an altar, St Expedite a very well known Saint in Izmir who was also venerated by the Greek Orthodox community with the name Agios Fanourios.

In April 1904 a lottery was organized to provide some funds for the church. The French Consul Mr. Blanc chose a commission for it. The president was Mr Emile Perrossier7 and the members Charles (Junior) Salzani8, Pierre Mihiere Col. Ernest Bon. A “festa campestra” as mentioned by the author, a picnic was organized at Halkapınar, at the Diana Baths with two musical bands one of St Polycarp and the other of the Punta district, with the lottery drawn and a bazaar. There were a lot of people. 100 Turkish Liras were collected for the Church. On the ceremony of the laying of the First Stone, 12 June 1904, there were present Mr Gabriele Barre de Lancy Vice-Consul of France, Rev. Canonico Varthaliti9, Vicario Generale, Rev. Antonio Macroniti, Rev. Policarpo Scagliarini and many others from the Church Hierarchy as well the architect Raymond Charles Péré who contributed to the project and the construction, Mr Emile Perossier, Mr Emilio Mattecich Petrini and many others. But it looks like the whole Edifice Covent & Church suffered delays in construction, so in 1921 a new commissions with members Mr & Mrs Nicola Apack10, Tommaso Prelorenzo11, Giacomo Apack, Giovanni Varthaliti, Edward Ceteaux, and Marco Zaloni were organized to terminate the project which only had a happy end in 1922.

My cousin Gabriele living in Italy remembers that in the early fifties as Parocco (Chaplain) there was P. Angelico of Izmir origin who could read Arabic and produced an excellent wine, then he was followed by P. Giacomo who was the military chaplain at the Italo – Albanian war and was a brave hunter, and there were of course many hunters from the old Bayraklı residents as well. The church is still in function.

Many of the paintings inside the church are of the Izmir Levantine, the late Jacques Edizel.

There was also a school of the Italian Catholic Nuns operating from 1907 to 1927 where Suor Caterina and Suor Magdalena were teaching which was opposite the Greek Orthodox Church. The Turkish Elementary School started in 1922 at Muradiye Caddesi, then transferred in 1923 to Anadolu Caddesi.

Yahya Hayati Paşa, Pittaco - Devries - Corsini Mansions

The Yahya Hayati Paşa Mansion of 30 rooms whose construction under Andon Gavano began in 1873 and terminated in 7 years, it had separate sections of Haremlik-Selamlık, pools, studs and a very fine architectural decorations.

Yahya Hayati Paşa originated from Rize (Black Sea) obtained with his Hamidiye Company (1864), as it is mentioned in my article: ‘The Importance of Izmir as Port City (Ottoman Period)’, the concession for the sea liaisons within the gulf and was also the Mayor of Izmir (1894-5). Adil Akçamlı mentions that with the mansions of Yahya Paşa, Pittaco, Devries and Corsini the Bayraklı seafront took a magnificent appareance.

Some Greek and Turkish Families

Kararas mentions the Greek families: Alex Tartoglu, Basteas, Alex Milanos, Athanase and George Katsiotis, Miltiadis Papaianou. Athanase and Emmanuel Orfanidis. Em. Kiriazis, George Stavropoulos.

We see in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99:

Orfanidis A: Confiseur – Rue Sekerdjidika, Izmir
Orfanidis M.J.: Quincaller – Rue Franque, Izmir.

And in the Indicateur Commercial 1920:

Milanos Alex and Andreadis: Automative products – Kerestidjidika, Izmir.

There were many wineyards of Greeks such as that of Andon Tsaliki behind Tepekule which was later sold on to Hasan Ağa. The Dala Yorgi and Karagiorgi brothers were agricultors. Generally there was a good entente between Greek and Turks as in addition many having migrated from the Balkans and Crete, knew Greek, writes Adil Akçamlı.

The Turkish immigrants were Hasan Ağa, Paçoti Ismaili, Lilaki İbrahim, Deveci Abdullah Efendi, Cemali, Pomak Ali. In 1915 the most numerous families were of Demiral, Ertenk, Demiröz, the Şimşirler who were known for their benefactory actions. The Çakirlar with their transport business.

The Levantine Families

Besides the ones already mentioned who signed the petition for the building of St Antonio Church, they were amongst the first families to have houses in Bayraklı, the Belgian Devries who Edoardo was Belgian Consul and his grand son Louis Devries who I remembered worked for the Nato / Afex Automotive Dept. in the 50’s. In addition the Pavano, Perini, the Duversot, the Jean Papi - the early story of a branch of this family and their involvement in the new Smyrna colony - , Apack, Filipucci, Pietro Corsini families.

A Walk through the Streets of Bayraklı

From what I could retrace in Bayraklı at the old Muradiye Sokak - 1609 sokak at no.14 used to live our contributor Maria Ines Filipucci12, born Prosen with her husband, the chief accountant at Giraud’s Yün Mensucat. Ines was a very talented pianist. Then further on the Petrignanis, Domenico and Aida, the Rivens who left for England due to the law of petits metiers in the 1930s. In the same street the Padulano13 family and at no.51 a Greek family then the Stellas, the Karakulaks, a German family of Mme Joje and the Mellinis, Antonio his wife Emilia and son Aldo. At the corner of 1609 and 1614 streets the family Gago former owners of the pasta (macaroni) Piyale factory of Bayraklı. An Armenian lady Mrs Ellin Karatchian and a Greek Catholic lady Mrs. Fotini.

Close to the Catholic Church the Jamaftas, the Mulinos, then at the Vişne sokak (now 1614) the Italian Levantine Policarpo Bertuzzi with his wife Elena and daughter Christina. At 1617 sokak Toto and Frida Papi. At the heights there was the house of the Pavano Family with its stone steps and the white back courtyard. The beautiful daughter Marissa married an Englishman and went to India, the son Lorenzo to Italy, the house was later owned by Mahmut Ağa.

The Luigi Tius14 as well as the Antonio Triches15 family at the old Menemen Caddesi now 1595 sokak. The splendour of the Yahya Hayati Pasha’s house can be imagined even from its deplorable state of today.

Some More Families

There were in Bayrakli also families as Galizzi (almost certainly the same family branch as this local newspaper author), Prelorenzo, Fabiano, Kalaidjian, Piro, Cochilia, Martini16, De Filipi. The Schlosser’s17 also had a farm where they cultivated flowers. The Armenian Priest Derbetzor (?) had also a flower garden close to the station. Luigi Capponi had a gaz warehouse at 1 km distant of Bayraklı which accidentally exploded in 1939 and caused the death of about 30 people.

According to Adil Akçamli amongst the most well-known people for the period 1922-1950 were:

The teacher Remziye Atagün who wrote the first alphabet, the national football player Arap Hamdi, Manfredo Corsini with his automotive enterprises, S. Ferit Eczacibaşı, the Komilis, the photographer Hamza Rüstem, N. Kemal Zorlu.


When Greek and Italians started to bathe in the sea from their seaside houses this habit progressed, baths were built and a lot of people were coming for this purpose from Izmir, as mentioned by Adil Akçamlı. The Jews who were living in Karantina district, used to take every Saturday the train which departed from Basmane at 10:00, coming to Bayraklı, taking a bath and returning with the train of 19:00. The locals profited from this traffic and raisins, figs, and other fruits as well as popcorns were sold to them.

Kites at Bayraklı

A tradition that according to Adil Akçamlı Greeks brought to Bayraklı and existed for 140 years. The wind called Imbat was coming from the gulf and was very favourable for it. The children used the courtyard of the Greek church of Bayraklı to fly their kites.

Bayraklı residents were organizing kite festivities in the Greek church area and awards were given to those who succeeded to fly their kits higher than the others and to those who had the most beautiful speciments. Many were working for days to create the best one with the most beautiful ornaments and colours.

There were fights in the sky and on the ground when collisions happened but it was a really Feast.


Little further to Bayraklı in the direction of Cordelio there was the neighbourhood of Aya Triada the present-day Turan. In the heights was a little Byzantine Church Aya Triada and an Ayasma. During its festivities a lot of people came with all means of transport from Smyrna, Cordelio and neighborhood villages. There was a mixed Greek school with one teacher and two classes.

According to Kararas there was 300 inhabitants of whom 50 Greeks, 40 Armenians, 10 jews and 200 Italians (Levantines).

Xenopoulos owner of the luxurious stores at Rue Franque [advert in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99] and many Smyrniot families as Iokimoglu18, Diamantidi19, Karvounopoulo, Stano, Zimari, Nauplioti had beautiful summer houses. Higher up on the hill was situated the house of Don Marco.

In Turan ex Agia Triada amongst the Levantine families of the area was our contributor the late Catherine Stano Filipucci whose paternal family Stano came from Sicily.

Catherine’s father George Raul Stano had a 250 acres farm in Turan with olive groves, vineyards and a bakery. Towards the end in the direction of Cordelio were beautiful houses as those of the Maltese Caleya20, the well known Paterson and Edgar Giraud families (please see tree attached).


It looks like Turan was a favorite location for Oil Companies in which many levantines were involved. I am grateful to the contributors, Catherine Filipucci, Mark Ransome, Jean Pierre Giraud, George Galdies and Cinzia Braggiotti for the informations supplied.
Catherine Filipucci (born 1917) mentions that his father George Raul was manager of this Company. We have also the information that a certain British Mr. Smith was owner of the factory in Turan and that during the WW1 he moved back with his family and the Gandon to UK and returned to Izmir at the end of the hostilities bringing back a Cadillac car with him. The Company should had been connected to the predominant American integrated oil producing refining Company Standart Oil established in 1870. We know also that Albert Braggiotti, maternal grand father of Cinzia Braggiotti, was the director of the Ege Petrol - general agents of the Socony - Vacuum - Standart Oil Company of New York, active in Turan. The location of the SOCONY was little before the TURYAĞ and had its own pier for the vessels discharging the oil.
The Socony became later on MOBIL OIL and in 1950 opened their office in Izmir.
EGE PETROL COMPANY: was during the 1930’s a distributor of Shell Oil products in the Izmir Region. It became inactive during WWII, at the end of which, prompted by Fernand Braggiotti, Harry and Bill Giraud purchased it and transferred its headquarters to Istanbul, where it became the distributor for Fiat and Ferguson and was a very reliable business. Ege Petrol’s first manager was Lucien Dandoria (ex Ottoman Bank), after which Jean-Pierre Giraud and Enrico Aliotti jointly took over the management (1964).
STEAUA ROMANA: we know also that this Romanian oil Company was present in the region for much of the XIX and even early 1900s.
TURYAĞ: It was in the beginning a small British oil refinery (yağhane) of Turan and in 1918 was transferred to the Turkish State. In 1928 it was bought by a German Company and then in 1929 by a British Company. The Bank Yapı ve Kredi became partner in 1957 and with the partnership of German Company Henkel it entered a new era and in 1996 under the management of Türk Henkel it was transferred to Istanbul. Recently the factory has been sold for 40 million dollars to Nokta Inşaat, a Building Company) which looks to want profit from the new urban plans for the region. In the recent Design Biennial of Istanbul there was a presentation of the Izmir/Sea project and it was envisaged that a Turan Entertainment Region with entertainment spaces, scenic terraces and sea balconies especially on the piers that concentrate around the marina also to be constructed there in order for the area to acquire an identity of tourism and entertainment. Currently the ex-Turyağ factory stands derelict.

Turan Baths

Rauf Beyru in his “XIX Yüzyilda İzmir’de Yaşam [Life in Smyrna in the 19th Century]” mentions that the Baths of Aya Triada (Turan) which were in the Kasaba Railway Route were quite famous due to the beauty and air cleanliness of the location. The Ahenk newspaper of 13 June 1897 was announcing that works of renovation with additional rooms and premises were made and that the opening would be made on the 18th of June.


A little further in the direction of Alabey (Cordelio) there was a quarter called Petrota, today’s Naldöken, it was just opposite Darağac railways end of line station and there lived 60 Greek families. There were no trees but a lot of rocks / stones it is why it was given this name (petra means stone in Greek). It was the hidden place and the promenade of the lovers. It was also a popular place for the Kathari Deftera festivities. From the heights of Petrota you could hear then the whole day the sounds of mandolines, cithars, organakia and doubelekia, listen to the songs and watch the dances. There is a Greek folk song “Ta Petrota”. Further on there was an English factory of vallonias and a hides processing works managed by Petro Petrini.

From Bayraklı to Darağaç
Bayraklı – Salhane – Mersinli – Halkapınar – Darağaç

Salhane - Mersinli

But let’s make a walk in the direction to Punta up to Darağaç. Next was the Salhane or Zarhane where there were the Grand Abbattoirs (Mezbaha) and which had a very few residents before 1920 as mentioned already and was included in the Municipality of Bayraklı. We see in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99 Franz Kochitz exportation boyaux a Salhane. The train departing from Basmahane made a stop at Mersinli as well as in Halkapınar. In front of this station of Mersinli was the well known cafe of Yahya Efendi of Bornova. In this zone Çınarlı / Mersinli were in more recent periods factories such as that of my uncle Costantin Lipovatz (KAL soap oil and pirina) and the managerial residence of my uncle Emanuele Baltazzi and his family, due to his functions with this establishment.

Mersinli before 1920 was also called Mersinada and there were a lot of farms and Greeks of Kithira who also build in 1891 the Church of Panaya ti Mirtidiotissa. According to Çınar Atay, the name Mersinli came from an old Greek installment “Myzsine” which had a big Greek cemetery – with all around farms and gardens. Probably the name Mersin – Mersinada has a connection with the local flora, Mersin was called a flower and the name of the church Panaya Mirtidiotissa recalls these profumed images and Prokopiu calls its vineyards a verdant happiness!

Now between Mersinli and Halkapınar there is the big olympic Atatürk Stadium.


We will then see Halkapınar - archive views - where Homer the Great Melesgian is reputed to be born in the waters of the Meles river and which was famous for its springs and its Baths of Diana. There are legends of a former temple here, and the name of the baths derived from it, detailed in the book ‘Discoveries in Asia Minor’ by Francis Vyvyan Jago Arundell - segment: Mara Meimaridi in her book “The Smyrnean Witches” mentions that the Diana Baths were like a good shopping bazaar. All the young girls would take a beauty bath in the waters of the spring. They were coming from all quarters: Aya Fotini, Mortakia etc. “Together with Eftalia we were making a rose water from the source water. What a beautiful smell” exclaims Katina, the heroine of the book. In Halkapınar there was also the steam powered flour mill of the Braggiotti brothers and the three factories of the Girauds.
Izmir Pamuk Mensucat (from 1910 to 2005)
Izmir Yün Mensucat (from 1905 to 1960)
Izmir Basma Fabrikası (from 1954 to 2005)
The dates of Giraud’s ownership are approximate.


Further in the direction of Darağaç were the competitors of Lipovatz the oil factory of Micaleffs and Ragusins. Now the Antoine Micaleff heirs in association with Arcas has moved the factory of Kristal Oil to the end of Bornova and the Ragusins are now in the automotive industry at Kemalpaşa (old Nimfio).

Now we are at Darağaç which according to Prokopiu this neighbourhood took the name from a tree (ağaç) where bandits were hanged. Famous for its gas factory and the factories of the well known wealthy families of Izmir as the steam powered mills of Cousinery/Pittaco then cotton thread factory of Guiffray/Verbeke. The wool processing factory of William Griffith. Other steam powered mills of Braggiotti (flour), Marcopulo, Georgala (the mayor of Boudja) Hadjiantoni Alphonse Magnifico, Tsintsinis, Stamatiadis and many others were in Darağaç (Daragatsi) as well as ice factories of Konstantinu and Bekerlin, of Charles Missir called Americanico. The factory of the Athanassoula21 brothers and the flour mill of M. Carmaniolo [advert in Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99], the cement works of Nicolaidi and the tannery of the Levantine Joseph and Pierre Saman [advert in Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99]. There were also the araba [cart] manufacturers many Greeks such as Kokonis, Karayanopulos, Merlas etc and the Tabakhaneler [tanneries] of Balcis, Hadji Grigoriu and many others. Other factories included the famous factory of Issigonis [advert in Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99], of Rankin were a little further at the Punta end and further still on at the Punta Street the Prokopp brewery. To reach them you had to pass the little Aya Markela Church, the great Orthodox cemetery and the Panionios Stadium (now Alsancak Stadium).

According to the book by Çınar Atay İzmirin İzmiri he mentions the tram line from the Punta station to Paralı köprü (bridge) and gives details on the itinerary: The line passes throught the Greek cemetery and the gas factory giving service to the paper factory of Athanasoula brothers as well to the pasta (makarna-macaroni) factory of Carmaniola. From there it passes in front of the Cousinery factory and the Daragach quarter houses From there in a direct line it passes in front of the Balladour warehouses to the steam powered mills and other warehouses belonging to the Ottoman Bank and of the Haci Andoni wheat mill there it ends at the bridge of the Meles river - the route partially shown on this map. This junction was meeting the caravans coming from the Manisa plain.


Now in Turan and Bayraklı many houses have disappeared due to new roads as well as due to negligence and building of appartments. However in what remains of old Turan some houses have been restored converted to restaurants, discos and the location has in recent years started to take a quite an interesting part in the night life of modern Izmir.

Tepekule, the old Smyrna Archeological Site at Bayraklı with the support of Chamber of Commerce has increased its visibility and with new excavations and its restructuring, aims to further general interest and the visit of more tourists. A Big Convention Center will soon be opening in the vicinity, Tepekule Convention and Exhibition Center.

The Old Gas Company has been restored to become a Culture and Art Center. The more recent and unsightly factories are being transferred from this zone to more distant places as Çiğli Free Zone and Manisa where we see many Italian Companys’ investments.

The greater Izmir Municipality has a Docklands Redevelopment Project which includes the Turan and Salhane district and the Project of a metro line going from Alsancak to Aliaga with stops at Halkapınar, Bayraklı, Turan and Naldöken.

Alex Baltazzi, 2009

1 Andon Gavano, according to Adil Akçamlı in his “Bir Zamanlar Bayraklı” was Greek, architect of the Hayati Paşa Mansion and the Pittaco one in Bayraklı as well as of the Vali Konağı (The Governor Mansion at Güzelyalı), the Forbes mansion at Boudja and the Ragıp Paşa Konak. However I could not find any trace in the Greek records, I think more research is necessary. return to main text

2 Pittaco: A well known old Greek family. They had also a house in Bornova and were benefactors of the Greek Orphanage. Thrasivoulos of Bayraklı is mentioned in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99 as following: Pittaco Thr. A -commission representation- negociant en emeri Yovanoğlu Han Izmir, also in the same Han was the active Pavlos Pittaco, quite a famous lawyer praised by Prokopiu in his “Seriani Stin Palia Smirni”. The Pittacos also had a factory at Darağaç, Thrassivoulo Pittacos received the honour of Knight of the order of Pius IX from the Vatican for his contribution to the donation of land for the construction of the Church of San Antonio of Bayraklı. My father would recall that the Pittacos also had land on the heights of Göztepe. In the early 70’s I remember I met in Brussels a gentleman named Pittaco who was from this family and was residing in this city and in the tobacco business, if I am not mistaken. return to main text

3 Timoni: A numerous and quite an important old Levantine family from Chios of Genovese origin amongst them physisians, dragomans, traders, bankers, orientalists and many in the top of the Catholic Church hierarchy in Chios, Istanbul and Izmir as for example Andrea Policarpo Timoni (1833-1904) Archibishop of Izmir at the end of the 19th century to whom was addressed the petition for the Church of Bayraklı and who cooperated on the recognition of the House of Virgin Mary (Panaya Kapulu of Ephesus) together with Pere Eugene Poulin and Pere Euzet. return to main text

4 Livorness: We see Livorness Esther Mode et Chapeaux Rue Franque mentioned at the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99 and many Livorness as quincallers and representants de commerce. return to main text

5 Marcara and Johnson: Not much is known about these families, clearly amongst the first residents of Bayraklı but they were associates, shipchandlers as indicated by the entry in Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99. return to main text

6 Jamafta/Giamafta: I mentioned this family at my Exarhos article Note no 19, and in the Greek Commercial Guide of 1920 there is an advertisement: John F. Jamafta successor of the Company of Jamafta and Constantinidis. Commissioners at Kuyumciyan Impasse No.27 Izmir. return to main text

7 Perossier: Antoine and Emile Perossier, born in Izmir 8.11.1864 and 25.11.1868, sons of Octave Perossier, general secretary and cashier respectively at the Société des quais de Smyrne and grand-sons of Joseph Perossier - view the 1898-99 advert of this company in the Indicateur Commercial. Octave married Marie Annonciata Vitalis 27.3.1861 in Izmir and Antoine was married with Amélie Giudici and Emile with Marie Aliotti. return to main text

8 Salzani: A preeminent French family of Napolitan origin in trade and banking allied with other important families in the same sectors, such as: Cousinery, Coutourier, Pagy, Alleon etc. In the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99, Salzani Ch. et Cie negociants et agents des Messageries Maritimes loc. Honischer Izmir. return to main text

9 Varthaliti/Vartaliti: An insular old Levantine Catholic family of tailors to the Ottoman Court, assuming a representative (Vekil) role for the Catholic Communauty of Pera-Galata. Occupying the first line in Catholic Church hierarchy of Istanbul and Izmir, but according to Schmitt’s “Les Levantins” also acting as Bankers. Often in a state of conflict with the locally assigned European clergy, as chef de file of the Levantines, in accordance with the spirit of the old local Communita Magnifica. However this clergy also had frequent internal divisions which weakened it. Vartaliti G. Sarraf et collection de timbres rue Tristrato Izmir (Indicateur Commercial 1898-99). return to main text

10 Apack: A Persian Catholic family engaged in trade as Apack et Cie Negociants Tsangri Tsarsi Izmir (Indicateur Commercial 1898-99). return to main text

11 Prelorenzo: An old Levantine family in Pera and in Izmir. Greek catholics later becoming Italians. We see in the Indicateur Commercial 1898-99 a Prelorenzo Jean, Ferbantier Rue Calovolo, Izmir. return to main text

12 Filipucci/Reggio/Stella: We see in the Istoria Tis Chios of Zolotas a mention that Don Ignatio De Portu in a catalogue he made on the basis of the book of Giov. Battista de Burgo vicario apostolico who visited Chios in 1686, it is indicated amongst the families of Genovese origin installed at Chios the Filippuzzi, the Reggios and the Stellas. It looks like there were more than one Filipucci/ Filippucci/ Filippuzzi family in Izmir as outlined by our Filipucci contributors and my Note No.2 in my article “Boudja the Flowers village”. Reggios also appear to be more than one family, one of Chios origin and some that came from the Reggio region of Italy. In the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99:
Reggio Hubert et Co. Negociants, quais.
Reggio Gaston: redacteur-proprietaire du journal Courrier de Smyrne. Local Constant.
Reggio Oswald J.negociant en tapis d’Orient - Saatli Ferhane. Reggio Os: commission a la Douane chez Astlick et Co.
Stella: We do not know much about them only that they left in the 1930s for South Africa. return to main text

13 Padulano: Adil Akçamlı writes that this friendly Catholic Levantine family used to live in the most beautiful place of the Muradiye Caddesi in a two story house with a garden full of flowers. Michel, his wife Lisa and four children. Michel was in the automotive sector. One of his sons Polycarpe was with the Altay football club, a tradition which continues with his son Alex. return to main text

14 Luigi Tius: An Italian Levantine family. We see in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99, Tius Louis mecanicien, ingenieur Rue Paralele. Many years ago I recall I visited with my father, who was on very friendly terms with Luigi, their house in Bayraklı. A quite spacious house of Italian style with a big garden leading up to the sea. Luigi with his son Mario had quite an important atelier -torna- [machining workshop] at Alsancak in a narrow street at the Parallel, not very far from the old Lazariste School Sacre Coeur. return to main text

15 Triches: I mentioned this family in my article Boudja in Note No.10: Antoine Triches lived in Bayraklı in a house on the seafront with bathing facilities was the uncle of my friend Benito Triches. return to main text

16 Martini: A Levantine family of Italian origin. There are now Martinis, French citizens living in France I met recently in Izmir, a Doctor Martini who was conducting researches on his family past. In the book of Olcay Pullukçuoğlu Yapucu “Modernleşme Sürecesinde Bir Sancak Aydın” [The province of Aydın in the age of modernization] there is a mention of the competition between the liquirice traders of Forbes, Simon, Athanase, the Italian MARTINI and Abacioğlu. There was particularly a real fight for the Umurlu crop of 1861-63 and the Government tried to establish a peaceful system of official concession “imtiyaz”. My great grand father Demostene Baltazzi Bey who according the text “served the State for 40 years and was known faithfull to the Sultan” applied in 1890 for a 80 years concession (imtiyaz) for the provinces of Aydin, Konya, Baghdad, Basra, Aleppo and Beirut. Although this licence was granted we do not see records of any such activity. I presume that Demostene Bey, thinking over preferred more quiet activities as that of Archeology, to note that as it was mentioned by Yapucu, both Forbes the Izmir Director and the German Simon had to maintain a team of 50 armed guards. return to main text

17 Schlosser: A Levantine family of German origin. Their house at Alsancak (Punta) was at today’s Kıbrıs Şehitleri, the former Mesudiye, and the florist shop was on the ground floor of the two floor house called Chios or the Greek house. The family were clearly in the flower trade for a long time as there is an advert for their services in the trade directory of ‘Indicateur Commercial’ of 1898-1899. As an extra activity in the late 50’s I was handling the foreign correspodence of Mr. Schlosser as he was exporting bulbs of his Bayraklı flower farm and I remember we had many requests from Holland, Germany and other countries. return to main text

18 Ioakimoglu Nicolas: In the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99 he is indicated as negociant [merchant] in the Kritiko Han Izmir. return to main text

19 Diamandidis D: Negociant at Bakir Bezestan of Izmir (Indicateur Commercial 1898-99). return to main text

20 Caleya: A Maltese origin Levantine family. I remember in the 50’s a Caleya at St Joseph, his father was Director at the Standart Oil Company of Turan. There were also Callejas in Istanbul but I do not know if it is the same family. Please see the recollections of Angela Fry. return to main text

21 Athanassoula: One of the preeminent old Greek families of Smyrna. They had a house on the Quais. In the 70’s I knew a Mrs. Athanassoula a ship owner who visited Izmir and we went to see the house in the garden of which there still was a statue of a lion which she recognised as having heard about it in the family. The Athanassoula sisters of pre 1920 were praised by Prokopiu in his “Seriani Stin Palia Smirni” for their beauty and grand chic. The Athanassoula Freres had since 1862 a steam powered paper mill at Darağaç and they were quite proeminent in the paper manufacturing and printing industry - see advert in Indicateur Commercial 1898-99. return to main text

Present view of housing in Bayraklı
An old surviving house in Bayraklı.
Another relict from the past on Muradiye Street, on the bay-side of Bayraklı a residence that later served as the local primary school from 1922 to the 1950s. According to a descendant (Werner Gustav Fluck), this building was owned pre-1922 by Mr Glock from Switzerland, friends of another locally resident Swiss family, Aemissegger.
Primary school girls in domestic science lesson in 1937
image courtesy of Andrew Simes
The crowded hill of Bayrakli and the converted Greek Orthodox Church building, the Analipsis Sotiros (Ascension of Christ), converted to a mosque, in the background.
image courtesy of Denem Orhun
The buildings on the base of the hill area - circa 1985.
image courtesy of Denem Orhun
circa 1985 view.
A derelict house in Turan - more views of this property -
A restored house in Turan serving a commercial purpose.
image courtesy of Hasan Arıcan
A view in 1916 from Tepekule to the Bayraklı, Bornova cad.
A view of Bayraklı turn of the century. The prominent building on the hill is the former Analifeos Orthodox Church, now serving as a mosque.
The view of the Bayrakli coastal strip 1929 from the Tepekule / Tantalus’s grave zone. The prominent building is the Yahya Hayati Mansion and across the bay the neighbourhood of Turan.
The family house of Mrs. Mari Papi Kalayciyan, on the Bayraklı hill, being visited by their neighbours the Pavano family in 1902.
View of Bayrakli in the 1930s from the Turan neighbourhood.
Side view of St. Antonio di Padova Catholic Church of Bayraklı.
Some of the murals in the interior of the St. Antonio di Padova Church, done by the local artist Jac Edizel (1913-1994).
The mayor of Izmir during WWI period was Rahmi Bey, who is featured in this photograph dating from 1918 with a cigarette in his mouth. Here he is in the garden of the M. Xenopoulo, probably in his property in Turan, and also featured here are from left standing, the French naval commander Rollin, next Elzear Guiffray and on extreme right M. Xenopoulo. Seated are Marcel and his mother Jeanne Guiffray. Commandant Rollin was from the French navy and was in command of a vessel that was part of the blockade of Turkish ports, was wounded, made prisoner, and was authorised to stay with Elzear Guiffray and promised not to attempt escape against his officer’s word.
click here to view more photos of Rahmi Bey from the Guiffray photo album.
The advert taken from Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99 by the Smyrna-Cassaba Railway Company, detailing the service offered including the neighbourhood stations, as referred above.
image courtesy of Andrew Simes
The former flour mill at Halkapınar - alternative views.

Click here for more views of old Bayraklı
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s article based on his personal memoriees of Boudja
Click here for a segment of Nikos Kararas’s book on old Boudja: “Boutzas: the flower village of Smyrni”.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Boudja.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Paradiso / Şirinyer.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Cordelio / Karşıyaka.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Bournabat / Bornova.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Seydiköy.

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