BORNOVA - BOURNOVAS - BOURNABAT
It is for a quite long time that I was thinking to make a research on old Bornova (Bournabat) but for this I was waiting to be able to get the Greek book of a native of Bornova, Nikos Kararas, who is considered as one of the best existing sources, at least for the period until 1922.
Now that I have this book “O Bournovas” – Athens 1955, I will try, as I did for Cordelio (Karşıyaka) and Boudja (Buca), to summarize it adding also other authors’ (unfortunately there are very few) useful informations.
Kararas starts his book with two letters he received, one from a professor, Achilleas Vantzios dated 4 Jan 1952, from Gianina (Greece), ex teacher of the school of Bornova, who is congratulating Kararas for his writings emphasizing that each city, each village has its history and that the coffee place of the railways at Bornova has always impressed him together with the beautiful climate and nature of this location.
The next letter was from Charlie Wilkinson, dated October 1923. A passage:
“each time I passed with the train from your farm, I remember you and your romantic life. Your farm is still in good conditions as well as your old house, but for you these are now only memories. All of us are travelling with our memories in the same boat”.
It follows a long topographic and panoramic description of Bornova by Kararas:
“When we walked the afternoons at the Punta of Izmir, and the sun was shining at the opposite side, we could see at north-east the beautiful and colorful Bornova at the feet of Sypilos. Bornova had a fertile zone, the Kambos long 8 kilometers, nine villages are surrounding it: Naldöken, Hadjilari (Hacıları), Narlıköy, Pınarbaşı, Sıkları, Kukluca, Mersinli, Bayraklı as well as Bornova. It looks that in the old times, the great part should had been sea and now there are four rivers, Eğridere, Bornova Çay, Kavaklıdere, Arapdere. In the Kambos we were obtaining a great crop of raisins, the “Sultaninas” as well as the red grapes with which was made the famous wines of Bournaba (see adv.). The transfer of the raisins to Izmir was made with the camels, in the Kambos we had also other fruits and olive trees.
There were also a lot of koulas and resort houses and everything was full of life and joy in the Kambos”.
History of Bornova
The history of Bornova is linked to this of Izmir. The south part of Sypilos, writes Kararas, should be considered as the one that is linked to Bornova archeologically and geographically, and the villages Bayrakli and Bornova at the feet of Sypilos have been created by Thiseus (1310 BC).
I will not go further on this subject and to the various theories regarding the Izmir’s foundation and history, the river Melez (Melli) etc. There is quite a lot of literature on it. C. J. Cadoux, Slaars, Texier, Tsakiroglu, Ikonomu, Bean, Latri, Prof. Ekrem Akurgal, Prof. Dr. Ersin Doğer and of many travellers. At the recent excavations at Bornova Yeşilova heights the age of Izmir went as far as 8500 years and now with the excavations at Kemalpaşa, Ulucak it went further to close 9000 years.
What I would like to add is that the mythos and the ancient history of Izmir have to be better valorized. Sypilos, Tantalos, Niobe and the immortal Homeros with his two Melez (Melli) rivers and various grottos should say something to all of us. We shall share at least the same enthusiasm that Mary Whittall, who came from England in 1831 to visit her brothers at Bornova, went on the saddle of a donkey on a quite bad road to visit the said “Homer’s grotto”. After one hour and a half of ride, she is writing in her diary “we reached a quite high rock and difficultly we climbed to its height, there were four holes and we needed a lot of imagination to believe that they were grottos”. It looks that she was not very convinced considering also that Homer was blind and that would be more than difficult that he climbs and lives there.
Origin of the Name Bornova and the Gordatos
In the XIII century, writes Kararas, for the first time in history Bornova appears as a quite inhabited populated place and was called Prinovaris which was under the landlordship of Saint Sophia of Istanbul and administrated by Ioanu (Jean) Duke of Neostogu, uncle of Emperor Ioanu (Jean) Vatatzi.
There is also an oral tradition that at the west side of the mountain Nifdağ, there was a place with a source and trees which was called “Monastırı” (Monastery) of Lembon built by the Emperor J. Vatatzis.
From the families who lived in this period at Bornova, Karara mentions the old Byzantines Gordatos who were living in Bornova and Izmir and went to Chios in the XIV Century, and uniting their family with the Mavros, became, according to some authors, the Mavrogordatos / Mavrocordatos, my close relatives.
There is also another hypothesis that they descent from the Quadratos who had Royal Pergamian and Roman Imperial blood (Argenti – Chios Libro d’Oro).
Bornova follows the history of old Smyrna, Genovese, Knights of Rhodes, Aydınoğullari and finally Ottomans.
In 1546 Giacomo Castaldi, Cartografo, make mentions of Burnoa. It looks than from then on the locality takes this name which according to Kararas could derivate from Prinovaris = Pournovaris = Pournovas = Bournovas. Karara does not share the Turkish origin alternative Burun – Ova and mentions that in French it was called Bournabat1.
In 1830 Michaud – 3 – 4000 people who in majority uses as resort as from March to November.
1853 – 4000 inhabitants – 700 Greek families – 80 Ottomans and a few Armenians, Jews, Latins and Protestants (Newspaper Amalthia)
1867 – 6000 inhabitants – 1200 families
1893 – 10000 inhabitants (Kimon Papamihail)
1920 – 15000 inhabitants of which 7500 Greeks – 5500 Turks and 2000 others (N. Kararas).
Some Dates from Old Records of XVIII Century
1746 The Armenian Catholic Claire Agop sold her house which she was owning since 1725 to Francesco Cortazzi (Hortadji) resident of Bornova and Consul of Venice in Izmir for the sum of 2500 krs. In 1772 the house was sold by Luca, son of Francisco, to the Greek community for the building of the Panaya (Virgin Mary) Church.
1749 The Swedish doctor and traveller Frederic Hassequilt mentions of a beautiful house of Begler (Veglery?)2 a wealthy Greek trader of Smyrna.
1768 A mention of Manolis Kostalas, in the house of Garnier which is owned now (1920) by Vicenzo Damolini. There is an inscription with a date of 1768.
1777 Nikos Hadjikostis in his “Smirneika Analekta” mentions that in 1777 was living in Bornova Paraskevas Keisariotis called the son of Küçük (Little) Murat, who was signing his name Parasis de Murat. His daughters Maria and Sophia were donators of the Church of Virgin Mary (Kimisis Theotoku) of Bornova. Keisariotis was married with Zabetoula, daughter of Zoanaki and Despina Omirou. Maria de Murat married Panis Em. Baltazzi.
1800 Birth of Etienne Escalon, uncle of a La Fontaine resident of Bornova. We see a Frederick Lafontaine (1800 - 1870) who married Adele Baptistine Escalon (1806 - 1850), the Escalons were of the oldest French families in the trade established in Bornova relative to the wellknown families as the dragoman Fontons, the Coutouriers, the Werrys.
The Roads from Izmir to Bornova and the Discovery of Bornova
Let’s walk with Kararas on the two roads that were connecting Izmir to Bornova, one of them was starting at the right of Basmahane crossing the caravan bridge, going behind Halkapinar to the old Mersinli (Mersinada) towards Mih. Argyropoulo and then through the vineyards (ambelia) to the railway station of Bornova and terminating at the market place. This road was commercial with a traffic of arabas and camels carrying raisins, oil etc.
The other road was more beautiful and romantic and was the more ancient one connecting sea to land. It started from the Smyrna Quais at the Bornova Pier crossing Salhane and the plantations of Kambos, passing from the Koula of the Baltazzi’s (then Aristou Manolea) the Jewish Koula, the villa of Douglas Paterson which was looking like a beautiful Scottish picture, the Greek cemetery and continuing to the Red Fountain, the Turkish cemeteries and the rear end of the house of Ambrosio Mavrogordato (then of Matheo Vafiadachi). In the times that there were not railways and the boats of the gulf, the wealthy class was travelling on this road. Many traders of Izmir were living in Bornova and everyday they were going to their offices and factories by this road. The donkeys, the coaches and the tenders were the main means of transportation.
Towards 1853, a small boat called “Bournovas” assured the sea liason between Izmir and Bornova. In 1865, the railways entered in function with the line Basmahane – Bornova. The train departing from Basmahane was making a first stop at Stavro (Cross) then to Halkapınar and Mersinli. In front of the station of Mersinli at the end of the beautiful road with the plane trees installed by Fischer, was the cafe “Kremlin” of Yahya Efendi of Bornova. From Mersinli to Bornova the train was crossing the vineyards of Dorsharmet (then Germanu), the farms of Antoni Tsilaki, Kamil Paşa, of George Karara (the writer’s father) and of many others reaching the Fountain des Soupirs. After the fountain on the left were the cemeteries of the British (1875) and of the Jews.
At the end of the railway line there was the station of Bornova. It was a beautiful station with flowers and a lot of greenery. On the left side was situated the house of Kona (Lady) Koralis, the residence of Lionel Belhomme3, a very polite and cultivated man. Mrs Belhomme, the Bébé, was a very beautiful woman admired by all. She was the symbol of the well-known beauty of the women of Bornova. The “Bournovalia” had something special which was due to nobody knows, may be to the sweet climate, the numerous flowers full of romance, to the water of Bornova?!
Amongst many beauties, Mrs Charlton Whittall, Mrs Xenopoulo, Mrs Lochner, Doris La Fontaine (actually Illiopoulo), the sisters Van Lennep. The daughters of Rüşti Bey, Saniye, Afiviye, Menduha, the beautiful Greek women known as Antalidaina, Argirakaina, Fotini Kontaksi Polixeni, Apostolea, Angela Viketu, Maro Andonopoulo etc. The Armenians – Gioula Elmasian, Marica Simonian, Lisa Artini.
Our Walk through Bornova
On the line of the station platform was the Hermes Gymnasium and behind the Catholic Church of Saint-Michel Ange there was also the coffee place of Mihalaki Djani. The station was one of the most popular places to which people liked to walk. The building of the station was quite big with waiting rooms and a residence of the chief station.
Going out from the gates of the station, we were meeting two lines of coaches with two horses, carrying the passengers to the market. Out of the station was an old han now big coffee place, and further on the house of Charlton Whittall and little further on the Big House, the villa of Armenac Gasparian, an Armenian family esteemed by all.
Going up to the village along the left avenue, under the plane trees, there were the houses built by the entrepreneur Andrea Macripodara in 1870 for commercial purposes. Macripodara, writes Kararas, was from Florence (Italy) where he was called Gambalunga (same meaning of the Greek Macripodara = long foot). He built also the Catholic church of St Michel Ange on 1870. The houses changed a lot of owners, as it has to be considered that many families of Izmir were using Bornova as a resort place. Lastly writes Kararas, Alexandros Zaharoff4, Henry Sperco, Giorgios Tsavelopoulos with his wife Poudovich, the widow Gertrude Barker, Van Lennep5, Nicolao Tsagridi with his wife Charitini born Bereketi and Fritz Charnaud with his Greek wife Efthimia were living there. This should be the Charnaud House described by Hugh Plommer in his article ‘An Outpost of Europe in Turkey’ and for which we also have a more recent photo (see below). According to Kalças, this house was built in 1831 by the Zipcy’s, before being sold to Harold Charnaud in 1919. Later it passed to the Clarke family who built a two floor residence in the garden (1981) (Source: Arıcan).
Close to Tsagridi, in the corner there was the big house of Daivit (Davee?)6 with his beautiful wife Emilia, later on Mrs Koumoundouru in Athens. In this house during the World War I, lived the General Pertev Pacha and the Governor of Izmir Rahmi Bey. On the right side of the Station Avenue were the houses of Pasquale, Sponti, Asthenidi and Socrate Solomonidi who bought it from John Boscovich in 1916, then rented to Thrasivoulo Calliga who kept it until 1922. The Solomonides even if they were spending only some months in Bornova they were giving a big impulse to the social and cultural life of the Greek community of Bornova.
At the end of the Station Avenue we were seeing the big house of Artin Iplikjian and close to the corner that of the Doctor G. Kiriakidis, and the open area was the golf course, in addition a football field and where camel wrestling took place.
At the end of the Station Avenue, at its right the street with the trees became wider and then we are in the proper European street which starts with the Houses of Lochner (more info on this family by contributor Erika Lochner Hess), of Vicenzo Damolino and Dimitri Tjani. The Lochner house was later owned by Douglas Whittall who lived there until 1977, then becoming the Fatoş Abla Anaokulu [junior school]. The gardens of these houses were remarkable and there you could find many exotic plants and flowers. The big houses includded those of of Edward Whittall7 (now Giraud), Adolphe Barry8 (now Local of the Ege University), Charles Giraud (is this the house which according Arıcan belonged formely to Balian, then to Charles Giraud, now property of the Aegean University?), Tristram9 (Zirai Mücadele Enstitüsü - Agricultural pest control institute), Herbert Whittall (The Big House), Ernest Paterson, Wood, Frederic Murat10, Milberg, Clarke, R. Whittall11 (now Suphi Koyuncuoğlu İlköğretim Okulu - primary school), Sydney La Fontaine12, Varipati13 and others. There were also the tennis courts and the skating area. In the square of this quarter called Bozalani or Champ des Emigres was also the English Club. Opposite the Club was the house of Issaverdens rented by the poet Mich. Argiropoulo for many summers.
The English Church – the First European Inhabitants of Bornova – the Old Aristocratic Quarters – the Big House of the Whittalls
In the corner of Herbert Whittall was the Anglican Church of Saint Mary Magdalene built by Charleton Whittall in 1857. Towards north and close to the house of Sydney La Fontaine was beginning the road to Magnesia (Manisa).
Girauds and Whittalls are of the first Europeans writes Kararas who came to Bornova and he gives many details that we can find on our site and on the writings of these well-known families.
Let’s only emphasize that the first Giraud; Jean Baptiste Giraud came from Antibes (France) in 1767 at Bornova and married Helen, daughter of Luca Cortazzi (Hortadji)14, merchant and Consul of Venice in Izmir.
From the Whittalls, the first who came from Liverpool to Izmir was Charleton in 1809. These families have had many intermarriages between them as well as with the La Fontaines, Protestants from Geneva naturalized English.
The English kept close relations with their country. Each child born in Turkey had to spend 3 years in England. In same time they were celebrating with big enthusiasm their national festivities as the fifty years of Reign of Queen Victoria, in the 8 June 1887.
In the period going up to 1865, the aristocratic quarters were at the end of the road coming from the pier of Bornova (Izmir) and terminating at the today (1922) Red Fountain in front of the grandiose gate of the villa of Douglas Paterson writes Kararas. In this area connecting with Smyrna and with the expectation that the station would be built there, they have built aristocratic houses surrounded with gardens as those of the Baltazzi, of the Doctor Aristide Svinou, Ioani Kana15 (then by succession Theodore Kessisoglu and G. Pestemalzoglu and lastly Eric Whittall, of Zurassevich, I. Psyachi (then to the US Consul of Izmir, Lane as dowry from Maria, daughter of Psyachi who married Lane), the house of Ambrosio Mavrogordato (then Boscovich from dowry of his wife Ipatia daughter of Ambrosio Mavrogordato and lastly to Matheo Vafiadachi from I. Boscovich dowry)16. The house of Ioanu Mavrogordato (lastly Datody) called Miser Yani O Mavros (the Black) and who was the cousin of Ambrosio Mavrogordato.
In the same quarter writes Kararas Jean B Giraud17 looks to have had more than one house, Charlton Whittall bought the house rented to him by Giraud in 1819 and extended the property buying land from two Jews. Finally this house which he called a “real palace” has been sold to Stiliano Mitchel18, son of Giorgios Michael Lascaris which passed to Kimona N. Hadji Kosta from the dowry of his wife Maria, daughter of Mitchel. Then the beautiful and big house of the Baltazzi19 took an historical importance with the visit of the Sultan Abdulmecit in June 1850. The Baltazzi had houses in Hadjilari (Hacilar) and in Bornova. Demetrio Baltazzi20 (1715-1791) merchant in the sea trade, my ancestor who lived and died at Hacilar. Demetrio was married with Christina Chrysoyani.
In Bornova was living Demetrio’s son Evangelino Baltazzi (1748-1809) married to Vierou Mavrogordato (1761-1856) as well as their son George Baltazzi (1787-1852), merchant and banker, (brother of my great great grand father Emanuele) and who hosted the Sultan Abdulmecid in 1850. George was married to Helen Curmuzi21 (1798-1855). Also their son Sofocles (1825-1898) with his wife Mary An. Iacovou were living in Bornova.
The lasts who stayed in Bornova were the children of Sofocles Baltazzi, Helen (1854-1916), George (1856-1919) and Anastasio (1872-1942). Anastasio left in 1922 and died in Athens.
When the railway line enter into function and the end of the line was determined where it is now (Kararas 1920) Whittalls very “prevoyants” had already bought a lot of land and start to build the “Big House” at Bozalani which they called also Champ des Emigres.
One of the last residents was Herbert Whittall, it is now the Rectorate of the Aegean University (Ege Üniversitesi).
In the Bozolani / Champ des Emigres, writes Kararas, in the year 1817 occured a duel between the Generals of Napoleon, Savary and Lalemand. Click here to view the Big House and other properties at Bozalan Bornova. An extract from the Family Records of Edmund H. Giraud (1934).
The Market – The Big Fire of 1873 – The Baths – The Big Mosque
From the house of Hadji Kosti going up we come from two streets to the market. Taking the right street and leaving the Baltazzi house with its treesfull square, we pass from the houses of Athanassi Lilla, Nicholi Kaligeri, Kirkor Ekizler and Savalan. After the Baltazzi house, on the right there was a narrow street where were living the famous Giaku D. Lambaditi, Kostaki Svinou, Mihali Morelu, and Panagioti Kouva. On the left street towards the market, we see the Koula of the Nuns and the house of Pandeli Tiba and the market which was quite wide and was divided into two sections, Turkish and Greek. Each section had separetely its cafés, grocery shops, barbers etc. However this separetion was not rigide and Greeks were shopping from Turkish shops as well as Turks for Greek ones.
In the market, there were 3 hans used also as hotels but Kararas was complaining about their lack of cleanliness. On the left street of the market, there was the hamam (baths) of Rüsti Bey. The market was an interesting spot at where every one was met with smiles and welcomes. On 28 August 1873, there was a big fire and security measures were not great. The British Consul Cumberbatch who was occasionally there helped to the efforts to neutralize it but 320 shops burnt and damages were evaluated over 30,000 gold liras.
On the upper side of the market, there was the big Mosque built in 1736 and 1846. Some believes that it was a Greek church, some that a Catholic of the Genovese gift of Paleologos.
The Low River – The Armenian Church – The Upper River
As from the Mosque at the left there was the street going to the Kato Çayi, low river, there was a big quarter where were living many Turkish emigrants from Bosnia and Crete. On the left side in the old times were built big houses of wealthy Armenians, as Serkou Elmasian, Hadji Stephan Essayan, Kontjaian, Bogol Birapian and others.
On the right coast of the Çay (river) was built in 1862 the Armenian church of the Holy Cross which has its festivity each 14 September. Houses of wealthy Armenian traders were also in the other zones, and particularly in the one of the station. There you could see the beautiful villas of Gasparian, Iplikjian (then de Cramer)22, Simonian, Bardespanian23, Yusuf Bey and a little upper there the ones of Bardjakian, Mandanian, Koumarian, Ekizler, Savalan and others.
On the left of the Çay, there was our family house writes Niko Kararas where was born my sister Anna who married Nico Lambaditi, and myself. My father (1859-1929) was busy with his farms and my mother Kona Margitsa (1855-1929) with her laces. We loved too much our house which is still there. Its soul is ours. Close to us, where living the Mindili, the Lambaditi, Rousou, Boyacioğlu and some Armenians and Jews, and many Turks from Crete and Bosnia. In the same zone there was a high house with big gardens of Mirzan of who the daughter, a beautiful young lady when she was singing in her room, people were stopping in the street to listen her. This house was owned before by the Archibishop of the Catholics of Izmir, Antonio Mussabini, where he died in 1861 at the age of 56. In the square up the Çay, there was the big house with gardens of Giorgios Kassimati and of Tsarmutzi. On the right side of the Çay, there were many other houses of Greeks as Lorandou, Tzanis, Karelos, Condoleon etc.
Crossing the river on the upper side, there was the house where was living a benefactor of the Greek community, Theodore Mantzouranis. Over there was the Kastraki (small Castle) with the canon of the Ramazan.
Continuing our walk from the big Mosque to the upper section, we reach the Konaki. There in the square in front of the Konaki building were taking place the Turkish Night Festivities (Donanmades) and was the house of the brothers Kosta and George Athanasiadi, a daughter of George was Frosso wife of the wood trader I. Baltaci. There was also the house of Koumarianou. Behind there in a narrow street was the old house of Fafalen and George Tsakiri.
From the Konaki Square there were four streets, one of them at the right was going behind the Mosque and was terminating in an impasse called of Cortazzi, where should be their second house after they sold the first for their contribution to the Church. There are further many other houses of Greeks and apologize that due to limited space I will not mention all of them, but hope that their descents or the interested ones have the occasion to read in Greek, Kararas.
I will add the big house of Petro Bey – Petros Kokinos, called Deli Petro the former mayor which he built in 1862 and sold to a rich Jew, Alexander Sidi who on his turn sold to Hadji Davud Farkouh, and this latter to Giatzis who was the shipchandler of the British fleet in the Mediterranean. During the Crimean War, Deli Petro took the iniative to ask help and cooperation from Charlton Whittall for assistance to the poors of the village, and this has been succesfully realized. Many found work in the realisation of kiosks and other works in the extended gardens of the Big House.
Many other Greeks became mayors as Pavlos Pittacos, Edouardo Muratis, Nicolakis Dimitriadis, Giakos Koulali. The muhtars were two, one Turk and the other Greek.
The Andonopouli were one of the best and big families. Dimitri came from Zatouna on 1836 and married Kiriakoula, widow of the rich English Lord known by the name Charles who fall unloved of Kiriakoula the day he saw her drinking water from the fountain. Their house was called Koula of the Nuns, and was situated after the house of Hadji Kosti.
The Church of Panaya (Virgin Mary)
The road coming from the station to the market was passing from remarkable houses and the Church of Panaya. Besides those mentioned, were the houses of Adolphe Barry, of Yusuf Bey. His nephew Pierre Yusuf was a wealthy trader in Izmir. The big house and gardens of Pierre Xenopoulo, Gizer, Xenofondos Tjani, Ioanu Dimitracopoulo, Datodi, Steliou Iliadi, brother of Ilia Iliadi, father of Dominie Lady Crosfield, Harry Giraud, Marcopoulo, Casanova, I. Psyachi, Kesisoglu, Stasas Zurassevich, Aristoteli Giorgiadi, Reggio, Barzakian, the pharmacy, P. Glitsou, previous owner in 1889 Zareh Zinorhavor. In front of the houses of Giraud24 and Marcopoulo (see Bornova houses article) was the square called Gondrand Alani (outdoor area).
The church was opposite the houses of Zurassevich and Kesisoğlu, and together with the Boys School was comprising a quadrilater. The church has a beautiful entrance with an imposing bell tower. According to the publication “Mikrasiatika Chronika”, before the founding of this church there was in the XVIII century a small church in the House of Mise Yani Mavrou (Ioani Mavrogordato) then owned by Datodi situated at the front of Gondrand Alani.
The Panaya Church started to be built in 1772 at the Cortazzi Real Estate. There is a document which emphasizes that with the help of the notables of Bornova as Prasakakis, Kanas, Mavrogordato, Hadji Tourasi, Hadji Gianakou and others, it has been bought at a price of two thousand three hundred kuruş (piastres), the house of the Venice consul the honorable Sior Luca Cortazzi (+1799) to be constructed as church. Luca Cortazzi had bought this house from Claire Agop, but he had another house close to Tzimeri.
In 1839-1840, it has been built in the same place a bigger church. There were remarkable icons, one of them the St John was donated by Ioanu Kana. The bell tower was renovated in 1883, a benefactor was Theodoro Mantzouranis and the architect the famous Rocco Vitali. It had a height of 25 meters, and was in red stone with 7 bells.
From the church to the market, there were two small streets, in the upper at right was the old house of Haralambo Andonopoulo, with shops and the Post Office and the house of Keun with its beautiful daughters and his son Bernard. Keun was the grandson of the Dutch pastor Bernard Keun teacher of Korai in Izmir. Behind this church and the garden of Psyachi, was the Catholic church of Santa Maria whose festivity day was the 8th of September. This church was inaugurated in 1832 by Fr. Isidore de Boscoman.
From the Gondrand Alani, a street at left was going to the cemeteries. The Greek cemetery was at the west united with the Catholic one and north with the Armenian one and all this area was previously owned by Paterson. In 1864, in the Greek one was inaugurated a very elegant small church, the Holy Trinity built by the great architect of Izmir, Xenofontos Latri. Many marriages were concluded between Catholics and Orthodox and many of them had half their tomb in the Greek and the other half in the Catholic one. The Moslem, the Anglican (see our site) and the Jewish cemeteries where as already mentioned after the Fountain of Soupirs, on the left.
The Alanı of Masgana – The Little Mosque – John Griffith
From the house of Yusuf Bey to the right there was the Zipcy25 Street which was going up and crossed the English Private School of Miss Florence Wilkin and the house of Varipatis (Anestasie, Athanasi, Andrea and Melpos), Condoleontos, Venizelon, Batistoglu and the pharmacy of Auguste de Lusignan, his wife was Polixeni Cochini. Then we come to the outdoor area, Alani of Masgana, a famous doctor of the Greek Hospital of Izmir in 1786.
At the square up there was the house of Kosta Prokopiu with the Movies Theater (Cinema) and the School of the Catholic Nuns. At the right of the Square was a narrow street with the House of Dimitri Baltaci or Papu and further of Derebey and N. Leontsini.
On the left the street was conducting to the small Mosque, the house of George Topaka, of Nico Lambaditi husband of Nico Karara’s sister Anna. This was one of the oldest houses, which was built in 1776 for Datodi Abraham Missir, according to an inscription in the house.
On the other street which was starting at the right of the market and going up, the house of V. Meshuri, Giako and Froso Baltaci with their wood trade establishment. The house of Manolaki Andonopoulo with big gardens of I. Maurudi (owner of big farms at Kambo and Menemen) of Giakou Tsimeri, of Topaka (former Zardinoğlu as called the street too).
After the oil mills there was the “Mezaraki”, a tomb of a muslim religious man surrounded with cypress trees. In front of it the house of Thano Dimitrakopoulo, whose wife was Helen Perkins. This house was owned before by a Jew, then by Ch. Wilkinson. Close to his house, the one of Solari, bought recently by the Greek Catholic Nikos Prelorentzos.
In the upper streets of the Havuza (pool), there were houses of Greek families, Diakoumaki, Baikousi etc and of the rabbinate of the Jews, Hayim Algrante, a very cultivated person. Going left a street was passing the Solari house, whereas the middle street called Topuzoğlu26 where was living Antonis Kogkos was conducting us to the Griffith Alanı (outdoor area).
The Griffith Alanı was a beautiful fresh square with a big plane tree and other trees. It has taken the name of John Griffith as he had his house with a very big garden there. Griffith was English and had married a Greek of the Kivetou family. John had progressive ideas useful to the vilage which he let know abroad. He spent his life and fortune in the study of sciences and using the Pasteur method made progresses in the sericulture.
On the right of the Square, going inside a narrow street we were reaching another small but very romantic Square of Sidi with a plane tree and two big trees. Around the square were the houses of Sidi, Roditi, Th Papadaki, Stelio Cochini. Inside the house of Sidi was the School of the Freres and close to it the Synagogue.
The Coffee Houses – Lombardo – Sofianopoulo – Ayos Yanis – Havuza – The Theater
From the Masgana Alani the road was going to a central location of the village “Kafenedakia” (coffee houses). Many coffee houses as this of Prodromu with billiards, grocery shops as this of Kosti Pastrumadji (mentioned by Edmund Giraud in his Family Records) and some houses.
Left of the Kafenedakia led the Lombardou street with the big house with gardens of Manolaki Lombardou, where the last occupant was a Braggiotti. Other houses were of Zografaki, Meleti, Grigoraki, Poudovich, Pavlo Pittaco.
Another street which comes to Lombardo from the English location was the Çiçek Sokak, where were living the Triachis and Tzanes.
The Lombardo Street was divided in to two. From the right we could reach the north east end of the village. There was the big aristocratic house with the immense garden full of choice flowers and trees. The honorable Penelopi Sofianopoulo was the great benefactor of the Greek community of Bornova and Izmir. Penelopi was the daughter of Kanalaki27 Sofianopoulo, Greek of Russian nationality, and sister of Alexandro and Nicolas, also benefactors of the Izmir Greek community. This philantropist lady beside her various donations had in her will, left all her fortune to the Greek hospital “Agios Haralambos” of Izmir.
Penelope Sofianopoulo financed the building (1910) by the architect Demosthene Apostolidi, a little church opposite her house, by the name of Agios Yani tu Prodromu (St John Baptist). Penelope in 1914 bought the big house with gardens of Reggio which was opposite the Boys School and donated it to the Greek community to be used as the Girl’s School.
Not far from there were the Havuzes (Pools). It was a beautiful spectacle as the pools were full of cristalline water surrounded by greeny. In front of the pool at left there was the open air theater. This was in former times a big area owned by Paterson and exploited by Giakoumis Batistoğlu and where were grown the famous menekşe (violet) of Bornova.
Kararas also mentions the wedding of the beautiful daughter of Cramer, a family of Bornova, with the lawyer “Zaba” (De Jaba) from Izmir, where all the society of Bornova was present. The couple should be Maria Elena de Cramer (1874 - ?) who married Auguste de Jaba (1853 - 1900 ?), lawyer at Izmir - local Baron Aliotti [i.e. his offices are local in Izmir at the Han owned by Baron Aliotti] as indicated in the Indicateur Commercial 1898 - 99. The De Jaba’s were of Lithuanian origin going as far as the XV Century - Lords of Swierzno (Poland). A well known member, Auguste de Jaba (1801-1894), was the Russian diplomat and orientalist writer who on his first marriage married Josephine Mostra (daughter of a Russian diplomat) and on her death Helene Louise Giraud of Bornova (1821 - 1896). This family also had marriages with others families of Bornova such as Corsi and Sponti as well as with the famous Drogmans Testa of Istanbul - (source: Drogmans et Diplomates Europeens Aupres de la Porte Ottomane - of Marie de Testa and Antoine Gautier - Editions Isis, Istanbul).
A traveller and daughter of a wealthy Austrian trader, Ida Pfeiffer (1797-1858), in May 1842 visited the house of H. von Kramer (Cramer) at Hacılar (village near Bornova), she wrote: “this resort stone house was in the middle of a big garden. The rooms were wide and spacious and the pavement was made of marble. A very high 5-6 feet date palm tree called my attention. In this garden there were the best kind of acacias trees at heights that can not be seen in our countries and many other species”. The resort houses of the Smyrniots were quite all the same, the houses took place in the middle of a big garden and the garden is separated by a high wall from the street. (İlhan Pınar: Hacılar, Seyyahlar, Misyonerler ve İzmir. Yabancılarin Gözüyle Osmanlı Dönemi’nde İzmir [Pilgrims, merchants and missionaries: Ottoman Izmir through the eyes of foreigners] 1608-1918, İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi Kent Kitaplığı, 2001).
The house which belonged to the de Cramer in Bornova at Çiçek Sokak has been demolished due to the road extension.
Some More Families
Socratis Prokopiu who is also from Bornova, in the Seriani Stin Palia Smirni includes Bornova. I will mention from him some names of old Levantine families, which I did not find in Kararas, as: Hayden, Desein, de Andria, Pagy28, Aliotti, Maraccini, Salzani, Courtovich.
In our site at the Houses of Bornova there is a list created from the book of Evelyn Lyle Kalças “Gateways to the Past – Houses and Gardens of old Bornova, ed. “1983”.
I will take only some names which have not been mentioned by Kararas and Prokopiu, considering also that both of them include only the period up to 1922.
Kalças mentions members of the families already mentioned at Boudja (Buca) as Alibertis, Balladour, Maltass.
Other as the Corsis, Lawson, Edwards, Winterhalter, Zandonatis, Steinbuchel, Stower, Armand, Fercken, Balian / Baliani.
From my own memories, 60s – 70s, when I was frequenting the parties and balls of the Golf Club of Bornova, I may add the Mainettis, the Sidems and the English.
From the Bornova burial registers in London mentioned in our site there are names (1950) of some further families not mentioned above, Eichstorff, Pengelley, Hornstein and in our site a Bornova Anglican cemetery listing can be found.
In the book already mentioned ‘Drogmans et Diplomates Europeens Aupres de la Porte Ottomane’ there is a reference to the dragoman and diplomat Ignace de Testa who came from Istanbul and installed himself in Izmir and in 1854 married Marie Fatalla Vekilzade daughter of Joseph Fatalla and Dominique Perpignani widow of Guillaume von Charbert-Osland, an Austrian diplomat. Marie died in Bornova on 13 May 1860 and her funeral took place at the local Catholic Church of Sainte Marie and she was buried in this church and the following epitaph is visible on the outdoor walls:
ICI REPOSE MARIE FATALLA MARIEE AU CHEVALIER GUILLAUME de CHABERT-OSTLAND ET EN SECONDES NOCES AU BARON IGNACE de TESTA NEE LE 22 DECEMBRE 1816 DECEDEE LE 13 MAI 1860. A LA MEMOIRE DE LEUR MERE CHERIE SES NEUF ENFANTS ONT FAIT ELEVER CE MONUMENT DE PROFUNDIS.
Marie Carmen Smyrnelis in her book “Une Société Hors de Soi” mentions that on the XIX century at Bornova, Levantine families who were related where having their houses close each others as the houses of Whittall, Maltass, Salzanis and Coutouriers.
For the origin of various Levantine families of Bornova you may consult the site: Family Names and the Cercle du Levant – Familles.
Schools and Education
In Bornova were the Greek schools for boys and the school for girls. At the beginning the Boys School was in the church’s courtyard, then the community bought the house with big gardens of Koumarian and the school moved there. Then in 1906, a new school was built.
The Girls School (Parthenogogio) was situated at the right of the church towards the Psyachi house. The school was built and financed in 1854 by Eustratio Petrocochino who died in 1865 from cholera. As there was not enough space in 1914, the benefactor Penelopi Sofianopoulo bought the big house of Reggio and donated it for a new school.
Greek Private Schools: there were many private schools.
Other Schools: Besides the Turkish state school, there were also schools of the Catholic Propaganda, of the Freres, the Nuns, the Italian Don Antonio with many Greek students. The Jews had also a school. The others were private. The English school, 1852, of Frank Turrell, where French, Latin and Greek languages were also taught. After Turrell, there were two priests – educators, the Dutch Lubouvié and the English Allen. There was also the English private school for girls of Florence Wilkin. In the 1836, there was also the Ecole Speciale de Commerce directed by Simon Roux.
Bornova was a center of athletism, a field close to the railway station become the first organized stadium with wooden covered tribunes capable to contain few thousand spectators. Here were hosted the two important important Smyrniot clubs, athletic competitions Panionos in 1896 and Apollon’s in 1904.
In 1896, there were also horses races with horses from the Bornova stables of Paterson and of others from Boudja. In theses races splendid circassian riders took part with their famous horses without saddles from the Tserkeze Villages.
Every year at St George, the Panionios, Gymnastic Club in cooperation with the English and Greeks of Bornova was organizing competitions which were taking 2 days and to which many spectators were coming also from Izmir.
The English were ahead on bicycle races. In athletism, Godfrey Whittall on long distance tracks and his cousin Herbert on short distances. The Greek Stamatis Kentrotis and Lucas Venizelos were always the winners of the 10 km performances which were taken place in the road Pınarbaşı – Bornova.
On 7 April 1900, with great ceremony in presence of the Aydın governor former Vezir Kamil Pasa and other authorities, the Consuls etc took place the Panioni athletism competitions. The Bornova Athletism Club had 5 first victories and second came the Samos Likurgos Club with 3.
On 23 and 25 April 1904, for the first time it was organized in the Bornova stadium by the Apollon Club in corporation with the Bournabat Junior Athletical Association (B.J.A.A.) and the high hospices of the Governor Kamil Paşa, the “Apollonia” athletism competitions.
In the various assigned positions in these events we see the Bournovaiots, Whittalls with Richard, Dick, Albert and Franck, W. Turrell, P. Xenopoulo, A. Van Lennep and Christian Denotovich as doctor.
The Athletic Union of Bornova participated with the following athletes:
H. J. Whittall, Ed. Charnaud, Percy Joly, Jim. R. Giraud, Pekoc Whittall, Stamation Kentroti, A. S. Whittall, Herbert Joly, A.E. La Fontaine, Edmund Giraud, Jim Gout, Hav. Joly, Th. Tarrazzi, Herbert Whittall, D. Whittall, Eddie Whittall, G. Whittall and J. Whittall. Under the Apollon flag were also the Bournovaiots, Victor Vlastaridis, Lucas Venizelos and Tevfik Rüşti - click here for archive football team photos.
The Athletic Club of Thiseos in 1907 and in 1908 the Ermis Club were founded in Bornova. However Bornova was in the forefront of football. The football team of Bournabat Club of the English was always the winner and played against the teams of the foreign military ships which called at the Port of Izmir. (The first recorded football match in Turkey Oct. 1890, between British Seamen and Levantines). The team participated at the Olympics of 1906 in Athens, and came second after the Denmark. Greeks profited from the English experience and many became good players as Stam. Kentrotis, K. Frangopoulos, George Agelopoulos, N. Karara, Christos Grimanis and many others.
Karara writes that it is our duty towards the history of the athletism of Izmir to mention the names of these main players of the last years of the Bournabat Club, who were real sportmen personalities with high technical ability, not only for our region but for all the Eastern Europe. Jim Giraud, Charlton Whittall, Edward Charnaud, Donald Whittall, Albert Whittall, Herbert Whittall, Havelock Joly, Godfrey Whittall, Raymond Giraud, Noel Giraud, Walter Whittall, Cecil La Fontaine, Tony Matheis, etc.
Besides this main sport, the English of Bornova played rugby, hockey, golf and tennis.
The location of Bornova with its Kambos, its mountains, was fertile ground for hunting. Partridges, woodcocks, hares, bec-a-figues [a local bird], and smaller gibier was abundant, as well as wild boar in the Nif Dağ. In Bornova few men were without a rifle.
Well-known hunters were Petros Athanasiadis, Petros Kalliergis, Socratis Dimopoulos, Mihail Topakos, Ismailis, Claude Varipati who had a collection of rifles and dogs, as well as Albert and Herbert Whittall.
Famous Visitors to Bornova
The Sultan Abdülmecid (1850) & the Sultan Abdülaziz (1863)29
On the 10 June 1850, the Sultan Abdulmecid arriving from Chios with the ship “Tayır?” called at Izmir. He went with the royal tenders by sea in the morning to Bornova and visited the bankers Yohanes Papasian and George Baltazzi at their respective houses.
Until recently we had very little information from any of the writers on Ovhannes (Yohannes – Jean) Papasian who in 1850 hosted the Sultan Abdülmecid in Bornova. The written sources only mentioned that he was banker. I am grateful to Mrs Saiko of Austria, a descendant, for the information about her great-great-great-grand father Ovhannes Papasian (around 1795? – 1851) who lived in Bornova and was the owner of 3 houses built side-by-side writes Mrs Saiko. After his death on 13.12.1851, the big house remained to his wife Marie née Tinghir from the Armenian dynasty of Galata bankers, the Tinghirian also mentioned by Clay in his book “Gold for the Sultan”.
The two smaller houses were rented out to Charles Van Lennep and to Mr Trullet, Ovhannes (Jean) Papasian was also the owner in Bornova of vineyards with a lot of olive trees and had a plantation of around 2000 olive trees in the gulf of Edremit. He is probably the person who received the Sultan Abdulmecid in 1850. His daughter Virginie (1822-1909) married Pierre Zipcy and the other one Regina married Pierre Topuz. We do not have details about the life of his two sons Antoine (born around 1815) and Simon. Mrs Saiko informs us that this Papasian family was according to church registers “Armenian Catholic from Ankara”.
The private research of Mrs Catherine Saiko also revealed another visitor of prominence to the house of M. J. [? Jean - currently being researched] Papasian as revealed in the French newspaper of 1845, Journal de Toulouse, mentioning the visit of the Russian Grand Duke Constantin to Bornova - details: The painter mentioned in this news item could be the famous Mr Aivazovsky, as he was at this time already working for the Duke Constantin and travelling with him. Not only that but the information in the book on Aivazovksy by Pars Tuğlacı also tallies: “In April 1845, Aivazovksy embarked on a journey with the crown Prince of Russia Grand Duke Constantin Nikolayevich in the ship commanded by Admiral F. Lutke, the founder of Russian Geographical Society, to the Aegean Islands and Anatolian shores”.
George Baltazzi met the Sultan at the gate of his house and gave as a sign of respect the keys of the property were presented on a gold tray to the Sultan. After the two visits the Sultan returned in the afternoon by sea to the ship where he met the authorities and the consuls.
In 1863, the Sultan Abdulaziz arriving with the ship “Sultaniye” from Alexandria visited Izmir and spent the whole day in Bornova. He was met at the entrance of the village and went to the Big House of Charlton Whittall where at the gate of the house greeting him was Charlton’s beautiful daughter-in-law Mrs. James Whittall. The keys of the house were offered on a silver plate, the Sultan accompanied by his suite including Fuat Paşa, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, met at this house the notables of the village including the mayor the Greek Deli Petro with whom he had a long conversation and presenting him with the gift of a silver whip and a sword.
He also visited the Protestant church where he took off his fez as a sign of respect. He dispensed with a lot of gifts, decorated with a Mecidiye a Whittall and also sent gifts to the Whittall ladies. Details are contained in Edmund Giraud’s ‘Family Records’ as noted by Kararas.
The Duke of Edinburgh and Prince George of Wales - the Prince Andrea of Greece – King Otto of Greece
In 1886 on the occasion of the visit of her Majesty’s fleet the Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales visited the Big House of the Whittalls where a dinner and ball took place.
The Prince Andrea of Greece was also in 1921 a guest at the Whittall’s house. Evelyn Lyle Kalças in the book Gateways to the Past also mentions that King Otto of Greece was received in 1833 by Charlton Whittall and his beautiful wife Magdalena (Née Giraud) at the Big House.
Maximilian of Hasburg (1850) and Others
As is mentioned by himself in “Mein Erster Ausflug” – My First Voyage, “with our General Consul we entered in the garden of a very wealthy banker of the name B... of Trieste origin. Kalças informs us that this person was Brussich of Italian origin, in the house known as Jurassevich/ Bioni. My former manager at Karavan, Polino Bioni, now retired, confirmed that Jurassevich (Dalmatian) and Bioni (Italian) were relatives. A lady Jurassevich married a gentleman Bioni. Probably in the period that Maximilian future Emperor of Mexico visited this house, the owners were the Brussichs. I knew a Mrs Brussich who was living in Alsancak, in the 50s and was a relative to the Dutilh and Giudici.
The father of Polino Bioni was in the management of the French Hospital and his grandfather with the Aydın Railways. They are relatives to the Caporals.
Besides Sultan Abdulmecid in 1850, Karara also mentions that the writer and poet Alexandros Soutsos of a great phanariot family (they had two yalıs at Tarabya, Istanbul) had been the guest of Sofocles Baltazzi at the Baltazzi house of Bornova and that this visit inspired him to write some verses. Evelyn Lyle Kalças also mentions that in late 1880s Mary Vetsera after having stayed at the Baltazzi’s farm at Aliağa was the guest at the Baltazzi Bornova House. I really do not know and I have some doubts as Maria Vetsera’s maternal grandfather Theodore Baltazzi owned houses in Tarabya (Istanbul) and at the Quais of Izmir and it looks more like that she had stayed there but of course the Kalças’s information could be also be correct. After all, the Baltazzis of Bornova and Boudja were her cousins.
Some other famous visitors are mentioned by Kalças as Lord Byron who stayed at Boudja in 1810, visited Bornova as well as Pierre Loti and Lamartine.
Kalças emphasized that the Wood / Steinbuchel house was used as the Ataturk headquarters in 1922 and was visited by Ataturk himself. This house was originally built by John Maltass, a relative to the Woods. This house was also known in the past as the Wood / Paterson (for details see the church publication ‘Candlesticks’ article on this house under: the Square in Bornova) and many recent authors such as Hasan Arıcan and İnci Kuyulu Ersoy mention it as the Matthey House. Probably the house later became the propriety of a Matthey who is the father of the last resident Mrs Renata Steinbuchel.
We see Matheis / Mattheys / Mattei / Mattheysz in the sea trade as from the half of the XVIII Century in Izmir, Venitian then Austrian subjects and also in an earlier period involved in bank administration (see advert).
According to Hasan Arıcan (Bornova Köşkleri, Gezginler ve Anılar - [Mansions of Bornova, Traveller and Memories] Tepekule, 2003) there is also another Wood house which was sold by Molly Charnaud Wood in 1980 to a tobacco trader Mr Akın Umur who restored it.
Activities – Professions
In a similar manner to the Boudja families the Bornova ones were mainly traders of the well-known products of Smyrna such as dried fruits, the famous sultanas (raisins), figs, vallonia, cotton and tobacco. I am attaching copies of adverts from the Indicateur Commercial 1898-99 and of the Commercial Guide of 1920 mentioning some of the Bornovalı traders.
Well-known names in this field include Aliotti, Barry, Iliadi, Gout, Essayan, Pagy, Paterson, Reggio, Salzani and Hadjimihalis is listed as a cotton exporter.
In vallonea, Iliadi, Pavlidis & Muratis, Whittall, Elmasian.
In the insurance sector, Whittall, Yusuf Bey, P. Gout, Solari, Boscovich, Hadji Kosti, Aliotti, Barry, Pestemadjioğlu, Mainetti, Datodi30, Reggio.
Bankers – Sarrafs: Lochner, Vafiadachi, Baltazzi, Zaharoff, Sidi, Brussich, Papasian.
Courtiers du Change: Perkins, Maraccini, Zipcy, Solari.
Many particularly of the oldest merchants families were in the sea trade – cargo ships – shipowners and/ or charterers: Mavrogordato, Petrocochino, J.B. Giraud, Baltazzi, Van Lennep, Boscovich, Curmuzi, Cortazzi, Matheis etc.
Shipping Agents: Edoardo de Andria, Pier Dorsharmet, Milberg, Henry Sperco, Whittall, Velgeris, Barry, Salzani, Datodi, Maraccini.
Manufacture of carpets: De Andria, Lafontaine, Giraud brothers, Aliotti.
Industrial Products: Balladur, Essayan, Clarke.
Textile Factories: Giraud’s.
Mines - Emery et metals: Alfred Charnaud, La Fontaine & Co., Freytag, Wilkinson, Paterson, Pittaco, Whittall.
Manufactures Clothes: Gasparian, Iplikjian, Vafiadachi, Xenopoulo.
Moulins a Vapeur [Steam powered flour mills]: de Andria, Braggiotti, Marcopoulo, Paterson.
Wine Producers: Dorsharmet.
Big Stores: Xenopoulo, Sidi, Solomonides, Iplikjian.
Writers – Memorialists – Researchers – Journalists – Philosophers: Nikos Hadji Kosti, Socratis Procopiu, Gaston Reggio, Antoine Reggio, Edmund Giraud, Charles Molinari, Jean Marre (philosopher), Charles Mirzan, François Datodi.
Painters: Hortense Gout (photo), George Prokopiu, Christos Sirakos, Andreas Andrikidis.
Music: Giakos Kokinis (tenor), Dimitri Kadis (composer of popular songs).
Botanists: Edward Whittall.
Sericulture (silk farming): John Griffith
Consuls: Lui Cortazzi (Venetian), David Offley (U.S.), Charles then his son Richard Wilkinson (U.K.), Alfred van Lennep (Dutch).
Hans (Locals) owned by the Bornova’s Traders in Smyrna (Izmir)
As like the ones of Boudja many traders of Bornova owned hans in Smyrna mainly at the vicinity of the old port.
In my article “Boudja the Flower Village” I mentioned the hans of the Aliottis and of the Baltazzi’s who had families both in Boudja and Bornova, I may add for the Bornova families the hans of the Whittalls, Essayan, Boscovich, Paterson, Psyachi, Barry, Pestemadjioğlu, Sofianopoulo, Yusuf Bey, Belhomme, Gasparian.
Land owned by Bornovaliots, period 1866-1890
For the same subject in my article “Boudja” I mentioned the Maltass, Baltazzi and Clarke families who had members in both villages of Boudja and Bornova. It is quite difficult to determine which branch owned what and where. Therefore please consider these informations valid for the whole family, of both places.
Actually Bornova is a suburb of Izmir, easily accessible with the new metropolitan line. It is well known by its University “Ege Universitesi” (Aegean University)32. Despite the vagaries of modern urban growth, the neighbourhood still retains patches of greenery and fresh air. New shopping malls have recently been opened and the “Forum of Bornova” is held up as Izmir’s largest and newest shopping mall with a design inspired by the city’s traditional architecture. There are also many “site”s with high-spec modern villas with pools which attract people from the crowded centre of Izmir. For over 10 years the Italians Consuls have resided in Dostlar Sitesi and from the heights of Bornova a pleasant view over the gulf can be enjoyed.
There are still members of some Levantine families living in Bornova, such as the Pagy’s, Ferckens, the Alibertis, Girauds, Edwards, Penetti, Icard, Clarke, Caporal, Gallia, Topuz, Mainetti, Mirzan, Zandonati, Cramer, Ragusin, Micaleff, Steinbucher, Paradiso.
There are some plans for the restoration of the few old houses that stil stand up, and we must be grateful to the University that acquired and restored some of these, however as in the case for Boudja (Buca), most projects do not advance beyond the drawing board. The Douglas Paterson House still awaits restoration, and there is not enough general interest in the history of Bornova, and probably those who have an interest to work on it can not find enough support, such as the author Hasan Arıcan, his works: Bornova Albümü [The photo-album for Bornova] (Tepekule Yayınları, 1999) and Bornova Köşleri, Gezginler ve Anılar [The mansions, travellers and memories of Bornova] ( Tepekule Yayınları, 2003).
There are some interesting articles on the architectural features of the neighbourhood. The one penned by Denise Braggiotti in English published in the daily Turkish Daily News in 1999, “Izmir past revisited through the old Bornova houses” and of İnci Kuyulu Ersoy of the Ege Universitesi, History of Art department, in the volume “Avrupalı mı? Levanten mi?” [European or Levantine?] (Baglam Yayincilik, 2006) as “Bornova’da Levanten Konutları” [Levantine residences of Bornova], as well as the interesting research of Hümeyra Birol Akkurt (on our site).
I. K. Ersoy mentions that 60 houses are registered as “Eski Eser” [relicts of value] and that 20 of these had been researched by the University. We expect soon to gain more information on this research and further our knowledge on this multi-cultural and multi-ethnic heritage of Bornova for which after having read Kararas I can better evaluate the length of our negligence and ignorance.
Wishing to terminate with some more optimistic and happy notes, please allow me to include some strophes of the famous Greek popular song composed by Dimitris Kadis of Bornova with the title “As hamilonane ta Vouna” in a freely adapted translation by Alex Baltazzi:
Mountains low down!
Low down! Low down!
Let me see Bornova
Let me see my love!
What I could want more
With your blond hair
You are like a Madonna
(Bornovalia: Young girl from Bornova
Alex Baltazzi, 2008
1 Bornova: There are various other thesis on the origin of the name Bornova, as this Persian, Birunabad (“Birun” meaning exterior and “Abad” a common suffix typical to the Islamic world cities as Islamabad). Also could be, I heard a name derived from the Russian word “Vorona” which means the bird crow, and becomes Voranova = Boranova = Bornova. The Russian could had been a language used in the early Ottoman period by Tartar / Tcherkeze imigrations.
2 Begler/ Veglery?: If it is Vegleri, is a Greek family installed in Istanbul and Izmir who had members as Princes of Samos, related to the Karatheodoris of Istanbul. Lastly at the shipping sector.
3 Xenopoulos/Belhomme: Kalças mentions that the House known as Belhomme (now a Municipality property – district library) had as its first owner a Xenopoulo. Livio Missir writes that Belhomme and Xenopoulos were relatives. Then it could be a transfer from an inheritance. Kararas also mentions of a house of Kona (Mrs) Korali (Coralie?) where Lionnel Belhomme was living and another house of Pierre Xenopoulo. Xenopoulos were of Greek Catholic origin took French nationality and the Belhommes were amongst the first French trader families in Smyrna. They also had a house at Cordelio Quais as shown by this archive postcard.
4 Zaharoff: It is a Greek family originated from Thessaloniki and established at Tagarone and Odessa giving a Russian form to their name Zacharia. In 1830 they were in Istanbul and in 1837 the “Journal de Smyrne” was making a commercial advertisement on the M. Zaharoff House at Bucarest and Smyrna. In 1857, in Istanbul, C. G. Zaharoff banker. The most known of them is Sir Basile Zaharoff, famous for his enterprises in the sale of arms. At his death he had 7 Nationalities, 298 Decorations given by 31 Head of States, including the Legion d’Honneur, the Knight Cross of the order of Bain and of the British Empire. (Source: Mihail Dimitri Sturdza, Les Grandes Familles)
A recent article in the newspaper Hürriyet precises that he was living at young age at Tatavla – Kurtuluş - Istanbul and that his maternal uncle was a Sevastopoulos in the trade, from our close relative family. Our contributor Yolande Whittall mentions a house at Moda (Istanbul) of Sir Basile.
5 Van Lennep: One of the oldest Dutch Families in Smyrna. Elena Frangakis-Syrett in her book “The Commerce of Smyrna” (1700-1820) writes that “by 1820 five Dutch commercial concerns that had enough capital to allow them to wait to intervene in the market at best moment were trading in Smyrna”, amongst these five concerns are Richard, Jacques and Pierre Van Lennep (see my article: The importance of Izmir as Port City). In a commercial guide of 1876 in the consuls list for:
Holland: P. Z. Van Lennep
Sweden & Norway: Kar. Van Lennep
Director of the British Post Office: Van Lennep
In the Indicateur Commercial 1898-99: Alf. Van Lennep: President Club des Chasseurs - Smyrna.
6 David-Davy-Davee House: Here I am a little confused. Kararas mentions in Greek characters “Daivit” and we know from Kalças a David Offley US consul, relative to the Gouts who owned several houses in Bornova. However the house occupied several years by Rahmi Bey is, according Kalças, a house of another American Davy (actually Askeri Gazino). We know from Schmitt that there was indeed an American E. G. Davee and a Pierre David, Consul of France in the period 1820 in Izmir. A puzzle, but considering that Kararas use more frequently the family names, I am more inclined to the American Davee (Davy) for this house.
7 The current resident of this historic house and garden is Mr Brian Giraud who has set up a web site in celebration of this botanic oasis.
8 Barry House: According to contributor Hümeyra Birol Akkurt, the Barry house name is derived from the Italian name of Bari. Kararas mentions an Adolphe Barry and in books concerning Smyrna, there are the Barrys, Persian Catholics as mentioned by the Cercle de Levant web site. The Persian Catholic origin of Barrys is also mentioned in the books of Missir and Schmitt.
9 Tristram House: Another mystery for me is the Tristram house. I have not found anywhere a reference to this family name. However Kararas does mention a Tristram house. I saw in the Pera Museum some paintings of Istanbul views (1880) by a James Ellis Tristram, but is he related? These questions were partly answered in March 2009 with the provision of ‘The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal, Exeter, by the Marquis of Runeval and Rainevy’ descendancy listing by the researcher Rhiannon Boardman, showing this family were installed in the Levant (initially Beirut), an Uvedale Barrington Tristram (1826-1898) who marries an Edwards of Smyrna with their offspring living in Izmir and Istanbul and who inter-married with other Levantine families such as Whittall, Cumberbatch - details: Furthermore this Uvedale Barrington Tristram is revealed in a book (Edhem Eldem Osmanlı Bankası tarihi [The history of the Ottoman Bank] - Tarih Vakfı Yayınları Istanbul 2000), that this person was an astute head cashier, as he recommended the return of funds from the Alexandria, Egypt branch when funds ran dangerously low at the head branch, in 1896 (much of the heavy loaning contracted by the Ottoman State had as guarantee the taxes to be collected in Egypt etc.).
10 Frederic Murat: According to Missir and the Cercle de Levant the Murats were of Catholic Persian origin. Frederic Murat was one of the redacteurs of the Journal de Smyrne published between 1876 and 1915. Evelyn Kalças in her book “Gateways to the Past” is mentioning “a Murat House” built by an Edwards in the 1880 and sold then to the Murats. We know by Christopher Clay “Gold for the Sultan” that Edwards Richard Efendi, an Izmir born Englishman, came as administrator into the service of the BIO (Banque Imperiale Ottomane) in 1874 at Istanbul.
I remember a Murat family in the 50-60s at Cordelio and I heard a flattery tradition that they could be descents of the French Murat General of Napoleon. But besides all this, I have difficulties to include the “de Murat” from the old records, “the Muratis” and Frederic Murat in one family, or they are different families, or may be the Orthodox-Greek or Armenian origin of the old times has been latinazed as it happened to the Varipatis mentioned by Missir. The “Keisariotis” surname indicated by Kararas for the Murat of the old records, could mean “from Caesarea - the present day city of Kayseri”.
We also know from the book: ‘Marie de Testa & Antoine Gautier Drogmans et Diplomates Europeens Auprés de la Porte Ottomane’ (Editions Isis Istanbul), a dragoman, Antoine Murat born around 1739 was in the service of Swedish Embassy of Istanbul as from 1774. In 1788 he was the Royal Secretary and Knight of Vasa. Towards the end of the XVIIIth century he was the dragoman at the Prussian Embassy. He died in 1813 and his tomb is at St Marie Draperis Church, Pera. He was an Armenian probably Catholic as there are mentions of donations & support to the Catholic Church. He was also an author of an “Essai sur la musique orientale ou explication du systeme des modes et des mesures de la musique turque”. He married Ripsime Coulely and had 7 children. He was related to the Seraphino - Mouradgea and Darabet Families.
11 Richard Whittall (1847-1920): Is considered the first who brought an automobile in Turkey (1905). He married Marie Cramer and had 14 children, he lived at the Bozalani in a fine house which he acquired from Alfred Barker. His open-handedness and hospitality were proverbial.
12 Sydney La Fontaine House: According to Kalças this should be the house built by the Wolf brothers after the Crimean War 1856 and which first owner was according to Mrs Daphne Aliberti, a Paterson and acquired later on by Sydney La Fontaine before to pass to de Zandonati and then to actual owners Aliberti. Mrs Daphne Aliberti has to be praised for having restored the garden to its former beauty as well emphasized by Kalças.
13 Varipati: Wealthy merchants of Greek origin who became Catholic-Italians. Their house of Bornova was one of the most beautiful residences of the Levant emphasizes Missir (today Veteriner Kontrol ve Araştırma Merkezi - vetenary control and research centre). This house was probably owned previously by the Whittalls as mentioned in the Edmund Giraud’s family records.
the former Varipati house
14 Cortazzi, Hortatzis: Sturdza in his Dictionnaire des Grandes Familles, mention Cortazzi, Hortatzis amongst Les Familles Nobles de Crete dont les Blasons figurent sur les murs de l’Université de Padoue (Italy).
Zolota in his History of Chios mentions the Hortatzis in Crete, then 1605 in Chios, Filippo Hortatzi (codice Latin) and many other members of this family.
Luca Cortazzi (1714 – 1799) Venetian Consul in Smyrna 1750 – 1797 and merchant married to Magdalene – Rosalene di Capo d’Istria. David E. B. Whittall (San Francisco, May 1990) in his writing about the Cortazzi family, I quote:
“My great grand father Luca Cortazzi must have been wealthy as he owned and lived in the fine double frankhane which passed into the hands of the Baltazzi family and in the principal house of which the ticaret or mixed commercial tribunal, hold its offices. His country house was in the village of Bournabat, as the first fine one built there by an European. It no longer exists, have been razed to the ground and the site being near the bazaar of the village, is now converted into a coffee house and shops”.
15 Ioanis Kana: (+1798): A Greek notable of Bornova, great benefactor of the Evangeliki School and the Greek Hospital, married to Maria (+1809) daughter of Emmanuel Baltazzi (1716-1778) and Maria de Joseph.
16 Boscovich: Although not a Chiot, I remember my mother was saying that is a family linked to the Chiot sea traders and our distant relative. Hadji Kosti through L. P. Kivotos gives us the following information, Boscovichs were from Dalmatia but with their marriages with Greeks they were Hellenized. Shipowners, traders and owners of a lot of farms. Michael B. died in Bornova in 1889. A brother Alexander was living in Livorno. We see the Boscovichs, French protected as well as Austrian subjects.
17 J. B. Giraud (1742-1811). Edmund Giraud in an attachment (09.06.1943) to his family records is mentioning a passage from the will of J. B. Giraud dated 1810 regarding the houses he owned in Bornova “trois maisons que j’ai acheté baties et reparé de mes deniers et une vigne”. These houses were precise Edmund Giraud situated in the residental quarter of the village above the present Douglas Paterson property.
J. B. Giraud a prominent merchant in the seatrade had also a frenkhane in Rue Franque which become the property of the Whittalls. His grandson James Whittall recorded that the fortune J. B. Giraud acquired was lost at the latter end of his career by the capture of two of his vessels by the British which entailed the lost of 2 million francs. and that his fine country house in Bournabat became the property of Hadjikosti.
18 Stilianos Mitchel: Mitchel according to Karara was Greek, son of George Michael Lascaris from Macedonia who obtained the British nationality in 1815 and gave from the name of his grandfather Michael an English form to his surname, to be called Mitchel. His wife was born Mavrogordato. A son of him George (+1867) and his wife Countess Anastasia Jurassevich (+1869) are buried at Bornova. In the courtyard of his house was designed the Byzantine eagle to remind possibly the Byzantine dinasty of Lascaris writes Karara.
19 Baltazzi: In the early 80’s I visited with Alexandre Tahinci, Mrs Evelyn Lyle Kalças at her Bornova house and she gave me some pictures of the house Baltaci/ Baltazzi owned by Reşit Yalpar and indicated in her book “Gateways to the Past”. I was not convinced and I showed the book and pictures to my cousins in Athens, descents of the Bornova’s Baltazzi branch and they verdict was negative. The Baltazzi house was quite larger and was closer to the station. We come to the conclusion that it has been demolished when the new route passed through there. The house indicated by Kalças should be of the Baltaci Family, mentioned by Kararas and which has no relation with our family Baltazzi, as far as I know.
20 Demetrio Baltazzi: A preeminent merchant in the sea trade between Izmir and European ports. In a certifate dated 26 Sept. 1781 (attached), Demetrio (Demetris) is mentioned as member of the Dutch establishment at Smyrna with all the rights and privileges of this institution. Others as Bartendorff, Sewaeld, Esaie Fercken are mentioned too as members. The Fercken were a well-known Dutch family in Izmir, relative to Pagy, Depollo, actually Mrs Jacqueline Pagy Fercken is currently living in Bornova at a Pagy House (see Pagy House at Houses of Bornova). In the listing of the graves of the Izmir Dutch cemetery in our site, there is Esaie Fercken (1775-1812) Chancellor of the Consul General of Holland, probably a descendant of the Esaie F. of the Dutch establishment.
21 Curmuzi (Hourmouzi) and the Sea Trade ex Izmir: According to the volume “The Baltazzi’s” of A. Benaki, the Curmuzi’s are an old Smyrniot family of Byzantine origin with Dutch nationality. They had a house in Izmir at Odos Papafilipa close to the Greek Girl’s School, Parthenogogio, and a farm at Hacilar (Bornova) where they were spending some months at the summer. We see them with the Baltazzi’s and the Peracki’s in the sea trade (list of merchants who took part in the trade with Holland carried out in Dutch ships from 12 Aug. 1786 to 22 Feb. 1787 (in our site: Chians) where we retrace also many others who had houses in Bornova, as the Mavrogordatos, Cortazzi, Curtovich, Savalan, Matheis, Pittaco and Murat.
In the History of Chios of Zolotas, we see Vassilios Curmuzi in the 1588 codices of Chios and that Miser Ioanis (John) Curmuzi was a benefactor of the Evangeliki School of Smyrna.
22 Cramer/ Iplikjian: Ev. Lyle Kalças in her “Gateways to the Past” book at the de Cramer House mentions that the de Cramer or von Cramer are Austrian nobles as per an Imperial document of 1801 addressed to Ambroise Hermann Cramer, Consul General of Austria at Izmir and that the Iplikjian House of Bornova (mentioned by Kararas) has been acquired by Frederic de Cramer, Banker after 1922. Iplikjian (Iplixian) a well-known Armenian family in Bornova as well as at the Quais of Cordelio (Karşıyaka) owners of big stores, manufacturers of clothes.
23 Badespanian/ Bardisbanian: This should be the house mentioned by Kalças as “Pandespanian House”. In Turkish “pandispanya” and in Greek “pandespani” is a kind of cake and I guess that the Bornovaliots, who had a great sense of humour, could call the house of this Armenian trader with this name as it looks somehow like a cake. Kararas mentions “Badespanian” but I checked the annuaries over several years. I found in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99: Bardisbanian (should be the correct spelling), Vahan, lawyer and Bardisbanian O. B. et. Cie., negociants et representants de commerce, Ecole Evangelique Izmir - view. The house is now the property of the Ege University and called Yeşil Köşk “the Green Mansion” as it is painted in green. The Bornovaliot’s humour continues...
24 Harry Giraud - Marcopoulo: Were two houses close to each other. It is mentioned by Kalças and Arıcan that both houses were previously owned by the Greek Marcopoulo. We see in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99, Marcopulo H. Antonion & Co. - moulin a vapeur, pour farine, Darağaç. Then in more recent times, we see the Giraud owners of both houses (see picture below) which in 1994 were bought by a liquid oil factory owner called Küçükbay. There was also an Edmund Giraud house which was demolished in 1974 and in its place apartments were built.
the former Harry Giraud house
25 Zipcy: Kararas, mentioning the bringadages that occured in Bornova, reminds us of the Koula of Giorgi Karagiorgi and its tragic history. This Koula [roughly translated as an out of town farmhouse, though the word was also used for Catholic run orpanages in the region] was bought in the past by the Swiss Jacob Spailti, relative to Leon Kiveto who reported the following facts to Kararas: On the death of Spailti the Koula was sold to Zipcy. In 1873 a bringand called Savas killed the young Michel Zipcy in this Koula. This should be the “Gypsy” family mentioned by Kalças as owners of a house they built in 1831 and sold to Harold Charnaud in 1919. The Zipcy family also had another house which had as later consecutive owners, Richard Mattheys, Charles Balladur (1928) then by inheritance to Raymond d’Andria through his wife nee Balladour, who then sold it to a Turk before moving to Istanbul when he became widowed. The house is known locally as the Balladur house. Kararas mentions a Zipcy teacher of French at the Evangeliki & other schools. In the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99 there is an entry of Zipcy Etienne chez G. Marcopoli et fils courtier de change.
I have been very pleased to receive a recent email from a descendant of Papasian – Zipcy – Topuz families. Mrs Catherine Saiko from Vienna, who is the correspondent, states she is a great fan of my articles, gave me valuable informations and asked if we could provide her with any further details useful for her family research. What we learnt from her is that the Zipcys as well as the Topuz and Papasians of Bornova are all according to church registers “Armenian Catholics from Ankara” - more information on Henri Zipcy, a prominent architect in Paris where he emigrated to:
There are 9 Papasian and 6 Topuz entries in the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99, showing their prominence in various business fiels.
The Zipcy family came to Izmir around 1800 and there were also Zipcys in Edirne and Istanbul as merchants / traders. André Zipcy in Istanbul was the editor of the journal “ La Turquie”. His son Henry Zipcy, architect, born in 1873, left for Paris in 1912, where a grand daughter still lives.
Pierre Zipcy’s wife Virginie, née Papasian, left Izmir in 1860 with their 5 children and went to France, but Pierre Zipcy stayed in Bornova and in 1872 sold his “big house” with the help of his friend Antoine Ballian to Edwin Joly (Agent of the Prussian National Insurance Company in Izmir - certificate). In addition there are Zipcys today in Marseille, France.
The Balladur House of Bornova, first owner Zipcy, then Mattheys, Balladur and then de Andria, as seen in the 1970s.
26 Topuzoğlu: Is the Persian Catholic Levantine family Topuz of Bornova? I had in the 50’s at St. Joseph Izmir a classmate, Jacques Topuz, a very kind person. In the Indicateur Commercial 1898-99, there are many Topuz in trade as Courtiers de Commerce etc.
The Topuz also owned in recent times a house which was built by the Alliottis and another one called the “Maltass” House where in the sixtees Audrey Maltass lived. This house was sold by Topuz to Mainetti, then when sold again it became a school and is now the residence of the Mayor of Izmir, Aziz Kocaoğlu [2005 archive newspaper article in Turkish on Mayor Kocaoğlu moving in]. Kalças mentions also that the house is over a hundred years old and was formerly called the Marre House as it was lived in for many years by the Marre sisters. Their brother Jean Marre (Maar) was a well-known philosopher in the 1920’s, author of Le Fondement de la Philosophie (Paris, Pierre Tequi, 1928), who according to Kararas, lived with his unmarried old sisters in the house which was above the school of Miss Florence Wilkin.
27 Kanalaki Sofianopoulo House: The valuable information of Kararas on this house and the owner’s family brings in my opinion an end to the myths of the Russian Princess of this house named “Kanalaki House” as per the Kalças book. Penelopi Sofianopoulo, daughter of Kanalaki Sofianopoulo, was not from a Russian origin and probably did not have the title of a princess. But she was noble in her heart and in her benefactory actions and this counts more than anything else.
28 Pagy: One of the oldest French trader families in Izmir, still active in our city. In the Indicateur Commercial of 1898-99, it is indicated: Pagy et fils: Maison fondee en 1822, exportation, produits divers du pays en commission, loc. Baron Aliotti.
Researches made by the family found an Italian origin, before they migrated to France. Mrs Coutourier born Salzani living in France in one of her visits also told me that the French Salzanis, traders and in the Maritime Sector were also of Italian, Napolitan origin.
The Pagy Houses are:
The Pierre Pagy House: This house was built in the beginning of 1800s by Fontan d’Escalon then pass by succession to La Fontaine and Whittalls who sold it to William Giraud and this later to Pierre Pagy, his grand daughter the widow Jacqueline Pagy Fercken, who is still living there.
The Raymond Pagy House: Where now lives now my classmate Guy’s son Guillaume Pagy. It was formerly a Whittall House.
The ex Baliani/ Winterhalter House: Who had previous owners/ shareholders within the family - Corsi - Reggio - Balliani/ Winterhalter - Mrs Yvone Winterhalter sold this property in 1980 to Guy Pagy (source Hasan Arıcan).
The Fernand Pagy House: Where now lives the Caporals - Claude Caporal and Marle France Pagy Caporal, it was formerly a Whittall property.
29 Sultan Abdulaziz Visit (1863): Oliver Jens Schmitt in “Les Levantins” mentions that the Sultan was received at the new railway station of Bornova at the north of the neighbourhood with the notables of all the communities, very well represented by the summit of the mixed commission of cotton: its president Hyde Clarke, vice-president Paterson and the members James Gout, James Whittall, Diran Efendi, Costanoğlu, Baltazzi and Argon Efendi. This gathering of a variety of ethnicity and faiths can also be seen at the trade tribunal with Anania Alberti, Dr. Raffinesque, Dr. Borj, J. Fischer and Boghos Efendi who were present together with the archibishops of the Orthodox and Armenian churches, the representatives of the Protestant Church and the Grand Rabbin and the notables of the Jewish community.
30 Datodi/ Datody: Zolotas, in his history of Chios, mentions Datodi amongst the Genovese families of Chios of 1686 and in the Chios Latin index des Baptemes 1707 to 1727 (Chio - Marmara), there are many Datodi mentioned as well as in Tinos. Mr Paolo Datodi, journalist from Trieste, great-great-grand son of Francesco (François) Datodi / Datody [photo], editor and owner of the Affiches Smyrnéennes (attached) newspaper has informed me that the Datodi name origin is from the city Todi of the Umbria region of Italy and that Francesco Datodi who was son of Giacomo Datodi was married to Uranie Calafati, born in Odessa who, according to Missir, was relative to the Greek well-known family, Melas. Giacomo Datodi and Franco Datodi are mentioned amongst the Levantine - Sardinian citizens and owners of properties in the 1854 list of the Sardinian Consulate of Izmir. Giacomo Datodi was a trader and judge at the Italian Consular Tribunal of Izmir (1860).
The Dattodis had marriages with Topuz, Issaverdens, Balladur, Reggio etc. Cavaliere I. Datodi, was Giovanni Battista and was brother of Francesco Datodi of the Affiches Smyrneennes, was the agent of the London Assurance Corporation, and was one of the founders of the Italian Chamber of Commerce of Izmir in 1900 - hover for info. The sole son of Francesco Datodi already mentioned who had also the name of Francesco was Lloyd Agent at Berdjansk in Azov Sea until 1917, then went to Trieste. In the beginning of 1900, there were Datodis also in Caifa (Haifa) and San Giovanni D’Acri (Accre - within present day Israel) as well as in the Black Sea.
Regarding the Bornova properties Mr Paolo Datodi assumes that the old inscription “Datodi, Abraham Missir” of 1776 in a house of Bornova could indicate a co-ownership of Abraham Missir and Tomaso Datodi for this house and that in 1970 there was a house situated at Ataturk Caddesi 13, Bornova whose owners were Caterina Raggio, Anna Corsini and Laisa Datodi and which then passed to the Bornova Municipality writes Mr Datodi (is it the Raggio House mentioned by Kalças and Arıcan? According to Arıcan in the place of the Raggio House there now stands the Alyans Apartments). Laisa was the sister of Francesco Datodi of the Affiches Smyrnéennes.
31 J.B. Paterson, John Borthwick, we know much of from contributors from descendants, but he is also referred to in contemporary accounts of travellers, such as: ‘Alexander Neil Somerville - The Churches in Asia. Extracts from the home letters of ... A. N. Somerville ... from the region of the Seven Churches - 1885’, in whose house he stayed and described his grand house and extensive gardens which yielded around 80,000 oranges the previous season.
32 Ege Universitesi: (web-site: www.ege.edu.tr)
Ege University has 11 faculties and 6 schools of higher education. Well known is the Hospital of its Faculty of Medicine and the Botanic Gardens of the Faculty of Agriculture.
I personally and through my agency Karavan cooperating with many academicians of this University, to citate: Prof. Gertrude Durusoy (French born) from the Faculty of Letters with whom I cooperated for the events Seferis in Izmir, Lamartine in Tire etc. We cooperate also with Prof Dr Rauf Uçuçu, Director of Çesme Tourism and Hotel Management School of this University for meetings and conferences regarding tourism. I have been informed that Eddie Wilkinson donated his library of mainly classic literature to the Ege University.
Click here for more archive views of old Bournabat
Click here for views of a selection currently standing Levantine houses of Bournabat
Click here for a segment of Nikos Kararas’s book on old Bornova: “Bournovas: historical notes and reminiscences (Athens, 1955)”.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Boudja.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Paradiso /Şirinyer.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Cordelio /Karşıyaka.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Bayraklı / Turan and region.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Seydiköy.
Alex Baltazzi 2008