The Old Boudja
The Flower Village of Smyrna
Thanks to the administrator of Mr Craig Encer and the various contributors, we have in this site within the scarce possibilities existing today, quite a volume of information on Boudja and its old inhabitants. Here I will make a short summary with some additional information based mainly on Nikos Kararas’s “Boudja” book.
Boudja, the Name: Kararas’s without omitting any detail gives 4 possibilities on the origin of the name Boudja:
1- With reference to K. Ikonomos who mentions that in the description of the boarders of the Lembos Monastery recorded by the Commander Fokas as per the orders of the Emperor Doukas Vatatzi in 1235, there was a location called “Kohis” (corner-end in Greek) whose translation to Turkish by the Turkish inhabitants gives “bu-uç” (this corner) Buca.
2- A. Fondrier, the archaeologist, said that there was an ancient village “Rousa” which derivates to “Boudja”.
3- That towards the end of the Byzantine era, there was a Lord called “Bouzan” who owned a lot of land in this region and the village took his name.
4- The “dja” in Persian means village (p.e. Tsamlidja – Koukloudja) and that those who went first to Koukloudja and did not like the place (bad odour in Turkish – koku) went south and looking to the location of Boudja said “this is the village”, “bu-dja”.
After all these options, in his dissertation Kararas opts for the first alternative of Ikonomos.
Population: According to Kararas’s:
1894: A Greek source Petridis: 6000 Greek inhabitants and good schools.
1907: Andonopoulo: 6000 Greeks + 200 Europeans. Further information as per dictionaries etc rose for the next years to 10 – 12,000, close to 1922 around 13,000, big majority Greeks and there were 60 European houses (majority – English then French, Italian, Dutch citizens) and 2 – 3 Armenian families and few Turks.
The population increased in the summer as many came from Izmir, owning a second house there or staying with relatives or renting a house. It was due to its climate and beautiful gardens that Boudja was so popular and was also an escape from fires, earthquakes and various epidemics.
Schools: Kararas emphasizes that there were very good Greek schools in very remarkable buildings. The Boy’s School (Astiki Sholi Arenon) since 1872 – had 6 classes of secondary studies, and was situated at the 9 vrisses (Dokuzçeşmeler - 9 fountains), the Parthenogogio (Girl’s School) was operating before 1870 and was located until 1910 close to the 9 vrises (Dokuzçesmeler - 9 fountains), in 1910 it was transferred to the front of the Church Evangelistria (St Mary’s).
Kararas mentions also the two English schools. The school of the English priest Hitchens which operated from 1908 to 1912 and that of Holton (1894). Holton was with the Aydin Railways and the school was managed by Mrs Holton, a very active person. There were a lot of students, few were foreigners (Europeans), many were Greeks and there were some coming from Izmir as they could be boarding at the school.
There was the Catholic Nuns’ School “Notre Dame des Anges” (1850-1936) and the seminary of the Capucins.
Churches, Cemeteries and Communities: There were three Orthodox churches. One at the Apano Mahalla (upper quarter) built in 1796 and rebuilt in 1854. St John Prodromo (Baptist). Consecrated for the birthday of the Saint, the church was close to the market place and the Taverna of Vidori. The other, also St John (1865) at the three Pigadia (Üçkuyular - 3 wells), Kato (lower) Mahalla. Consecrated for the death (the venerable head) of the Saint. The third church was at the Kato Mahalla (lower quarter) built in 1903, Panaya tis Evangelistrias (St Mary). Panayotis Pandaleon, a ship-owner of 10 ships, contributed to its building with 2 thousand liras.
For the Greek Orthodox Cemeteries: Prokopiu mentions the Cemetery which was behind the Apano (Upper) Ayo Yani Church and was full of flowers, there were two beautiful mausoleums one of the Sevastopoulos and the other of Voutsinas. I have mentioned my paternal great grand mother family Sevastopoulos in my memories of Boudja. The great Byzantine/ Chiot family of whom Pandeli Sevastopoulos was the greatest benefactor of the Greek community of Izmir. The Sevastopoulos had houses and gardens between the Capucin’s Monastery and the All Saints Church in Boudja. The family Voutsinas was from the Isle of Syra, great traders of whose Fokion Voutsina born in 1835 at Syra and lived in Boudja. His beautiful villa was at the entrance of the village, at the end of the road coming from Paradiso (Şirinyer). Fokion was also writer and poet as well as one of the benefactors of schools and hospitals of Izmir. Kararas mentions also a little cemetery close to Kato (Lower) Ayo Yani and that the great public cemetery was further away from this church.
The Catholic church St John Baptist, started to be built in 1805 (in 1805, there were 500 Catholics in Boudja), as parish of the church we see Giovanni Filipucci, Don Valleri, Don Antonio Balladur, Don Francesco Reggio. Kararas, with the cooperation of Livio Missir, gives further information that the presbytery was built by Don Camillieri and was extended by Don Reggio. Furthermore he mentions that in the garden of the church, there were tombs of Mrs James Lafontaine, born Greek Kokini from Bournabat (+1854); Sophia Amic, born Gallo (+1836); the Doctor Achille Raffinesque from Geneva (+1877) the Baron D’Antin and others. The tombs exist no longer.
In the year that Kararas wrote his book (1962), there were 20 catholic families with a total of 103 members; Aliotti, Cassar, Petrini, Roels, Sponza, Filipucci, Micaleff, Pierre Corsini, Jean Corsini, Dermond, Charles Missir, Fred Missir, Alfred Missir, Remo Missir, Edgar Balladur, the widow Marcel Balladur, the Doctor Cesare Aliberti, Maurice Aliberti, Marcel Icard and Antoine Rivens (information obtained by Kararas from Livio Missir, who obtained this list from the Parish Priest P. Michele da Novellara who I personally knew as well).
Of course the Protestant church of All Saints is also mentioned that in 1835 with the cooperation of the English and American priests took place in one house, and then in 1866 actual church was built opposite the Blackler gardens, owned at the time of Kararas’s book by George Falbo. The church was inaugurated by the Gibraltar Bishop. Kararas also mentions the cemetery with about 236 tombs, some names: Barker, De Jongh, Gout of whom Walter had a Greek wife Calliopi (1842-1879), Maltass, the Archeologist and Professor of the Evangeliki School Weber, Cadoux, Fonton, Belhomme, Werry and others. Mention is made also for Maria the wife of N. K. Papadaki, daughter of John Vickers and the Ghelastos.
Until 1922 there was one mosque in Boudja, close to the central Konaki.
Beautiful Women of Boudja: I have to mention this paragraph of Kararas, as really several times the young ladies of Boudja were praised for their beauty. Et voila la Liste!
Loulou Filipovitch, Mlles Athinogeni, Artemis and Nina. Artemis Leondaritou, Eleni, Christina and Maritza Axarli, Lili Hors, Renee Arachtingi, the true dolls, Helen, Majorie and May Rose Rees. Elli Gavril, Germaine Dracopoli, Ketty Kaboropoulo, Renee Dracopoli, Aida and Phyllis Peacock, Mary Dracopoli, Despina wife of Haralambo Aroni (Bourdeli), Penelope Aperghi, Ioana Katsori and others.
The Kambos: According to Kararas, the Boudjaiots were hardworkers and agriculture flourished. A real paradise! The Kambos started from Paradiso (today Şirinyer) and went up to Nifdağ up to Gaziemir and Trianda with the whole land intervening being cultivated. The majority of Boudjaiots had farms (çiftlik) and there were all kinds of farm houses – large and small, very characteristic ones. Of the so said Koulades (farms with mill towers), Pyrgi (towers), the best known were: the Koula tu Englezu Papa (of the English priest - possibly that of the converted windmill house of Rev. Robert Pickering Ashe) that of Icard, Kalothi, Athinogeni, Anastasiadi, Georgoleon, Pirokakou, Maravelidi, Voutsina, Papamihali, Baldji, Fatsoa, Vidori, Kulakaou, Hadjiantoni, etc. That of Hadjiantoni was close to the nunnery on the way to the Greek Church Evangelistria (St Mary). The tower was very high and had a terrace. Hadjiantoni was a leader in the flour industry, having one factory at Darağaç and one in Izmir at the Profit Ilya. He wanted to be alone in this terrace and drink his ouzo and smoke contemplating the beauty of the Kambos - remains of one today.
We also had a Çiftlik (farm) being relatively small in comparison of our Kasaba (Turgutlu) Menemen, Aliaga, etc.
Main agricultural products were raisins, the famous sultanas, and figs, olives, oil, tobacco, etc.
Old Families and Houses: Kararas writes that many European (his terminology) inhabitants of Boudja had wonderful, luxurious houses with beautiful gardens as that of the Forbes, T. Rees, Aliotti, Gout, Takvor Spartali (ex Baltazzi), Barff and others and continues by stating that of the non-Greek inhabitants one can mention the families: De Jongh, Blackler, Griffitt, Holton, Joly, Arachtingi, Roboly, Leydon, Williamson, Dracopoli, Missir, Icard, Barker, Weber, Keun, of the lawyer Denis Canale and of the oldest Gordon, Lee, Pasquali, Baron Issaverdens, G. Vickers, Cadoux, Brusick, Fonton, Boddington, D’Hochpied and Werry. Also in Boudja lived the family of Joseph Falbo, trader in medical products at Gialadika-Izmir, an Orthodox but with Italian nationality. For the most known Greek families, Kararas makes a list of about 100 families, and then he says “I will mention other families too (about 100 again) excusing himself if he forgot someone. I am pleased to find some relatives from the great Chiot families, Mavrocordato, Sevastopoulo. Other relatives as also of Chiot origin Amira1, Filipucci2 and others as Athinogeni3, Fotiadi4, Arealis5, Dubrovich, Moraitini, Defterego (that of Manol Hotel) and mine Baltazzi6.
I wish to finalize with the subject, emphasizing an important aspect for which I want to give also a message. Therefore, I will also mention the writer Prokopiu that in the Seriani Stin Palia Smirni he records “do you want some houses, chosen between the best ones but dispersed from the Pano (upper) and Kato (lower) Mahalla”. These houses are of:
Marcopoulo, Athinogeni, Voutsina, Bafea, Baldji, Gavril, Macropoulou, Davudi (Farkouh), Baltazzi, Lamarinidi, Pirocacou, Koulalaou, Alevra, Lorando, Andreopoulo, Desipri, Amira, Hors7, Papamihali, Giovanof, Haralambaki, Defterego, Tsivoglou, Komnino, Skaba, Stamnaki, Saveli, Isigoni, Savera, Blisidi, Axarli, Pantaleon, Giorgaki, Kiriakidi, Iosif, Paleologou, Tarladji, Manicopulou, Carer, Icard, Grizioti, Kirli, Tsausopoulu, Moraitini, Aperghi, Horafa8, Konstantinidi, Tsamouzaki, Avgerou, Mersa, Lola, Solomonidi, Hadji-Yanakou, Buyuka Suloutji, Apostolaki, Zeibekou, Pigidi, Makridi, Raptaki and of Giorgalou, the Mayor, for which he says “its mill turns and cares for Boudja with love and taste”.
Consequently it looks that there was an impressive number of houses and buildings (churches, schools etc) of a certain historical and architectural interest considering the status and the wealth of Boudja’s old inhabitants of various origins, nationalities and faiths.
Some writings and notes of various authors could give us some more clues on the location and on the kind of houses. Some that I found:
Kararas mentions that as far as the Orthodox church of Apano (upper) Ayo Yani is concerned, there was an agreement between the metropolitan and the rich Chiot families for a contribution. The Chiots, wealthy traders of Smirni “Chiosmirnei” were living at Hadjidakia, one central street which went from the Kato (Lower) Çarşı to the Konaki.
The Odos Komninon: Just in front of the Railway Station, was the most beautiful street which was also called the “Boulevard Spartali” or simply “Boulevard”. It is the same boulevard that Erpi mentions: the street now known as Atadan Caddesi (Uğur Mumcu), was known in the early period of the Republic as the İstasyon [Station] Street.
In another note Kararas refers to the newspaper Amalthia of the 8/3/1868 announcing the sale of the land at the Megali Vrisi (Büyük Çeşme - Big Fountain) in front of the old house of Maltass9. There is also mention of the Gordon house which had a well at the end of the village after the 9 fountains square.
To be better oriented, we have to consider the topographic divisions which were denominated on basis of the locations of the two Ayo Yani churches upper and lower.
a) Apano = Yukarı = Upper Mahalla and Upper Square 9 Vrisses – Fountains – Dokuz Çeşmeler close to the upper Ayo Yani Church.
b) Kato = Aşağı = Down Mahalla. The 3 Pigadia = Üç Kuyular close to the lower Ayo Yanis Church.
Known streets: To Fardi (the Long Street) Sokak, to Zümbül Sokak (Upper Mahalla) and the Tourko Mahalla (the Turkish quarter). Regarding the Turkish one, the information we have from Feyyaz Erpi “Buca’da Konut Mimarisi (1838-1934)”. I quote:
“During 1877-1878 the violence prevalent in Bulgaria at the time forces the Turks to flee resulting in a human flood which gained momentum during the 1912-1913 Balkan War. Of these refugees one group is thought to have settled at the foot of Tıngır Tepe in Buca. With the 1924 population exchange there is a further addition in numbers in people settled here. From 1950 the city rapidly grew. To the South-East of the village a new refugee settlement formed. The green agricultural lands were opened to settlement and with time a megapolis formed.”
Now the the Dokuz Eylül University campus Buca has become somewhat a university town. The recent developments promoted by the municipality of Buca such as the Gölet lake and organic tourist villages are pleasing. In the June 2007 edition of Izmir Life magazine in the article of “Dokuz Çeşmeler” [nine fountains] the author Deniz Çabaşan states the first residents of the region were Levantines and that the first architecture faculty building of the university was owned originally by the family of the Italian Count of the Piedmont region, Dr Cesare Aliberti, a doctor known for his benevolence. Being a popularly liked person at his funteral Dr Aliberti’s coffin was held aloft (1967). Next to this mansion, amongst the first local Turks, Muharrem Sabuncu was a soap manufacturer in the 1940-50s. The house was later let to a NATO general. The first Bosnian refugee quarter was also set up in the village in the early 1920s.
The present meeting point of the student community is the “Eylül Köşkü” on the adjacent side of the square. It is obvious it was once a grand house from the garden of 2 acres, hand-made stained glass windows and marble fire places still in existence. Once there were chandeliers, however the original builders are only known as Levantines without a name, later passing on to the Sabuncu family later to the university.
The “Eylül Köşkü” is preserved but many others aren’t that lucky, a portion have collapsed completely to ruin states Deniz Çabaşan.
As you see although efforts of many such as Erpi, the municipality of Boudja, our site administrator and contributors, there is much to discover of locations, houses, the names of the original owners and of the architects. At least owing to Kararas and Erpi we know the architects Vafiadi10 and Nicolaos Kikiras (Cat. 34 owners?, Atadan Caddesi). But it is far from what is sufficient to honour this historical and architectural heritage. It needs more concern from all of us. Even those buildings still standing such as Forbes, the slow restoration is still not finished. The Baltazzi house restoration project has been abandoned by the school and needs new care. We could transfer the garden statues to the Boudja 9 Eylül University in a museum for which we made contributions and expected a flourishing future for this heritage, unfortunately this project doesn’t yet operate properly due to bureaucratic problems.
We are even far from the situation in Bournabat (Bornova) where the University has taken a proper possession and restoration of various houses. Very very far from Istanbul where researchers are competing each others to write and locate the history of Galata – Pera – Bosphorus and Islands which is tremendously required by the growing tourist traffic. It is not too difficult to find a location even if the building / the house doesn’t exist any more. There is relevant literature easily accessible, the Pervititch and Goad fire insurance plans and the Sedam Hakkı Eldem’s books with charts / schemas as those of Bosphorus Yalıs from which Christophe Alleon (the descendant of Baltazzi’s partner’s Alleons in the first Bank of the Empire) and I joining again as our ancestors our efforts to discover the many properties of our families in Istanbul.
The tourism aspect shall not be neglected. Genealogical interest has increased and without willing to make an advertisement for my tourist organisation Karavan, I was not expecting the keen interest and the increase in the tourist traffic generated by my cultural tours, Izmir – Vourla – Alaçatı – Çeşme etc.
The governments, UNESCO, the municipalities, the universities, the cultural and tourism associations, the researchers, within the growing cooperation between Turkey – Greece, and European Union have to find ways, including financing, for serious researches, restorations, literature and promotion of the historical and architectural heritage of Boudja.
Kararas mentions as the bravest hunters:
Brothers Athinogeni and Pirokaki (from whom the brother Christos like my father lost an eye during hunting!), Theodore Adamopoulos, George Hors, Vafias, the Brothers De Jongh, Blackler, Forbes with his Tserkerze Guardians, Vangeli Paterakis, Yanis Delimousakis.
Permit me to mention my father Costantino and his brother Emanuele and for more recent generations Sponzas, Cassar, Karakulaks, Alibertis and many others. It has to be noted that the game (av) was abundant, woodcocks, partridges, hares (tavşan) and the small gibier, bec a figues. But the most enjoyable was the wild boar game, which was hunted in the green mountains with an organized hunting including the “sureki” [drivers] and a team of hunters.
These passions such as hunting were an expression of not having borders for the “Levantines”. I heard that once the Rees in Egypt were organizing sumptuous “chasses au canard” which were taking one week and to which were invited relatives and friends from all around the world. The Empress Elisabeth of Austria mentioned that for the Baltazzi brothers of Vienna, they were a credit to the hunt of Godollo (Ref: Joan Haslip, the Lonely Empress). The same passion existed for horses too. It will be interesting to investigate that too. I will try to do it with the writing to follow: Paradiso, horses races etc. Paradiso, today’s Şirinyer, was considered a part of Boudja.
There are a lot of local anecdotes concerning hunting, one of them was told to me recently by a Smyrniot hunter Achille Perini: one day my father and a Whittall (I think it should be Douglas) heard about a place with a lot of hunting quite distant to Paradiso, they went by train and then they walked to the famous spot, as good sportsmen they were. However concentrating on the hunting which went well (my father was really a champ, so was Whittall) they missed the last return train. It was quite after midnight. Then they went to the Muhtar’s [village chief] home at the village, they knocked the door and shouted “muhtar, muhtar, wear your fez and come to open the door” and they spent the night as honourable guests at the Muhtar’s house.
Kararas mentions that Boudja had good athlets, G. Tsitsas won the Panhellenic games in 1895. The school of Holton had its own Stadium in the school area and its football team of students which was competing with the American College (where my father studied and played in the team before going to study in France) and the Evangeliki Scholl. From Boudja well-known players were Solon Lorando, the brothers Bahadori, Dalla, Stathis Tselebi, J. Holton, Fredy de Jongh, Dick de Jongh, G. Koutsika.
My uncle Emanuele went to study at the Italian School of Rhodes and was playing in the football team. While playing he injured one foot and it took some time to cure.
VISITORS TO BOUDJA
A- TRAVELLERS (As per N. Kararas Boudja)
1- Frederic Hassequilt – Swedish traveller
1749 in Boudja at the country villa of Mr Ospie, Dutch Consul for a carnival feast.
2- William Turner – English traveller
In 1816 went to Boudja to visit Mr Werry (British Consul of Izmir) but finding him absent then went to Mr Gout and stayed overnight in the beautiful villa and visited the estate (Ref: William Turner, Journal of a Tour in the Levant, Vol. 3, Pages 136-137).
3- Francis Herve, 1837
Writes that the country houses were not of a standard type as in many civilized countries, they have a kind of originality which impressed him as well as the custom to seat all together out of their houses and socialize with each other very easily.
B- OTHERS (As per N. Kararas and Livio Missir)
1- Lord Byron
On the 5th March 1810 he came to Izmir and stayed for 36 days, most of his sojourn was spent in Boudja at John Gout House. There, mentions Kararas, in the romantic and unique atmosphere of the beautiful village, he wrote the verses of the Child Harold Pilmigrage.
Livio Missir, in his book Appunti Familiari in the chapter, Villagio di Boudja mentions that he wrote the Bride of Abydos (A Turkish Tale) there.
Kararas includes information received from Mr William S. Blacker living in Athens, Kifissia that two of the most remarkable Europeans having houses at Boudja were John Gout (an English of Huguenot origin) and John Lee, both members of the Levant Company. John Gout coming in Izmir in 1792 exported carpets to England, the property was sold in 1894 to Mr Bliss of Mc Andrew – Forbes Company then to Gordon of the same company and finally his widow sold it to a Turk. Leon Kontente in his book “Smyrne et l’Occident” writes that due to the fact that the crop of cotton of 1864 was inferior by 25% from the previous year, Mr Gout who had already problems owing the fire at his big factory of Izmir (1863) was under a great financial crisis. Gout however was still the best structured exporter in 1864 and he exported the 21,8% of all the cotton of Izmir. But this did not prevent his official bankruptcy in 1865.
2- The King of Greece Othon in 1833.
3- The Sultan Abdulaziz at the Baltazzi House, 1863
Further to the details we have on our site, I will mention that some authors mention that he stayed four nights, some three nights and others one. Furthermore we know that the gate from which he entered was closed forever as a sign of respect and that the keys of the property were presented to the Sultan by the Landlady Maria Sevastopoulo Baltazzi, wife of Demostene, on a silver plate and the Sultan took them and put them on the neck of the baby Baltazzi Emanuele (older brother of my grand father Alexander, born in 1862 and died in Athens on 1942). I knew him, a bachelor; he lived with us while we were in Athens. Quite fat, always in white elegant suits, he adored my mother Rose, who despite the war conditions, his daily classical question was: “Rose, what we’re going to eat today?”. He lived in his own antique world, but contributes greatly to the preparation of the book on Baltazzis written by A. Benaki. He had an album of old photos of the family, unfortunately now lost.
Besides Emanuele, Demostene and his wife Maria, born Sevastopoulo, they had two more sons, Giovanni (John) born in Buca in 1865 and died in Alexandria in 1937, also a bachelor. They said he had a big fortune in Egypt. I just know about the villa at Bulkely Ramleh Alexandria, which he let to his niece, daughter of Alexander, my aunt Maria, who married Mano Defterego also from Boudja. Then Alexander, my grand father, who was born and died in Boudja (1864-1924).
Another detail from Kararas’s is that in 1919, the Italian government was interested in buying the property from the owner Spartali, to use as an Italian Agricultural School but this did not finalize and the Greek community bought it instead and it was used as mentioned on our site as an Orphanage.
4- The Empress Eugenie in 1907 for some hours at the Barff House. (L. Missir writes that she spent the night at the Blacker villa).
5- Livio Missir in the book already mentioned writes that in 1857 the Prince de Joinville son of Louis Philippe had been received at the house of Giuseppe Pasquali, a trader of Genovese origin.
6- Again according to Missir, the hereditary prince of the Italian Crown (later on he will become King Vittorio Emanuele III) was host at the Villa de Cedres of the Batavo [Villa with cedars of Batavia = the old name for Holland] – Levantine family of Keuns related to Borghese whose one daughter Valerie Keun marries Prince Livio Borghese.
(Missir with this gives us also the relation of Keuns – Borghese but this does not clarify why the Horafa (Chorafa) House is also called Villa Borghese by Kararas).
ACTIVITIES – PROFESSIONS
Many of the families having a house in Boudja were traders of various products principally of the well-known products of Smyrna such as dried fruits, the famous sultanas (raisins), figs, cotton and tobacco. To name a few: Pasquali, Missir, Amira, Balladur, Nicolaides, Pirocaco, M. Aliberti (tobacco), Dracopoli (cotton), Barff (cotton), Russo, Onassis11, Clarke12. Opium commerce was permitted in these times as practiced by Keun, Barker etc.
Due to the importance of the Izmir Port, their commercial firms were located in its surroundings. Many in locals, Hans appertaining to Boudjaiot families such as Amira/ Hochpied, Sevastopoulo (the Fasoula Han donated to the Evangeliki Scholi in 1747), Aliotti13, Spartali, Baltazzi, Honisher.
Many were also in the Sea Trade, cargo ships, shipowners and / or charterers (see Chians) such as Mavrogordato, Sevastopoulo, Baltazzi. Passenger Line Shipowners Hadji Davud Farkouh, Joly, Pandaleon; Shipping Agents (Rees, Sperco14, Voutsina, Alevra); Insurance Agents (Blackler, Carer, Rivens, Giovanof, Missir, Spartali15); Banking and Exchange (Baltazzi, Pantaleon, Marcopoli, E. Keyser).
Then there were carpet manufacturers, owners of flour factories, and traders of these products and with the Tanzimat and the progress of the Industry, owners of mines, oil/soap factories, wool processing factories, railways companies (Purser, Roboly Adolphe, Simes), the gas company (Gandon, Roboly H.S.) and others. Many families had more than one commercial activity and were in many other professions too: Kosti Gavril owner of the elegant patisserie Cafe Costi of Izmir; Defterego, owner of the Manol Hotel of Boudja; jewellery shops: Sponza, big stores: Diogenis. Boudja families were also prominent the liberal professions such as lawyers, doctors as well as many educators, writers, archaeologists who contributed to culture were Boudja domiciles.
Lawyers: A. Arealis, Denis Canale, P. Fotiadi, A. Athinogeni, Giovanof, Niko Amira.
Consuls: Ospie, Francis Werry, G. Boddington, R. W. Cumberbatch, Hochepied, Alfred Keun.
Writers, researchers, journalists: Cecil John Cadoux, Fokion Voutsina, F. Falbo, Livio Missir16, Brian de Jongh, P. Fotiadi, Odette Keun, Tom Rees.
Kararas mentions as Boudjaiots the family Solomonides but with no other details. We know that a Solomonides Socrates was the director of a local Greek language newspaper Amalthia and his son Christos while in Athens wrote a lot of books on old Smyrna such as the Theatres of Smyrna. But there were also Solomonides Freres, depot de droguerie and Solomonides Chr. as a lawyer.
Educators: Athinogeni, Marcopoulo, Hitchens, Holton, Hochepied.
Archeologists: George Weber, Demostene Baltazzi.
Also priests of Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant faiths. Catholic Freres and Nuns.
Doctors: Cesare Aliberti, Alexandre Horeti, Vasilliou Manicopoulo with a pharmacy at Boudja. Petro Aperghi, Nicolau Lorendo with a pharmacy at Boudja.
The Williamson sisters with a nursing house in Izmir.
Pharmacies: In the Indicateur commercial of 1898-99 we see the Boudjaiot Icard Freres, Pharmacie Rue Franque and Icard Freres, negociants et droguistes local N. Aliotti. Kararas and the commercial annuary of 1920 mentions two pharmacies in Boudja that of Dr Vasilliou Manicopoulos and of his nephew Dr Nicolao Lorendo. From the book Beşonsekiz Treni of Tayfur Göçmenoğlu, we are able to retrace that the historical Buca Eczanesi was built in 1906 (an inscription on the marble) and belonged to a Greek. We can then assume that it should be that of Manicopoulos or Lorendos. I am more inclined favour Lorendo who is younger. The owner after 1925, was a very well known pharmacist, Kemal Ergen, and now he is the third generation managing it. The manager of the Buca Pharmacy, Sadettin Özçeri has been praised for his good assistance to all Turks and Levantines.
This discovery though it remains linked to a strong assumption is a happy event for me and we hope to be able to make other connections ref: houses, buildings. We can not continue stating this was a house owned by a Greek or Levantine, or a Turk. We shall be able to put names on them to give lives to these walls. Then interest and preservation from all those concerned including visitors will undoubtedly increase.
I am obliged to my friend Benito Triches17 for having permitted me to consult his indicateur commercial of 1898-1899 and take some copies. I attach some adverts from it as well as from the most recent one of 1920.
BOUDJAIOTS IN THE INDUSTRY
Keun & associates, carpet manufacturers, at Uşak.
Aliotti, Spartalı, Baker, Griffith carpet manufacturers, Izmir.
R. Wilkin – cotton process factory at Bayındır.
Gout: Cotton-gin process factories in Izmir, Manisa, Aydın and Menemen.
Mc Andrews and Forbes: Liquorice factories at Aydın, Söke, Kuşaklı and Nazilli.
W. Williamson: Flour mill in Izmir.
R. Rose: Soap factory in Izmir.
William Griffitt: Wool processing factory, at Darağaç.
Hadjiantoni: Flour factories at Darağaç and Izmir.
Marcopoulo Antoniou & Co: Moulins a Vapeur [Steam flour mills], at Darağaç.
Dermond: Alcohol Distiller, paint factory, in Izmir.
Lipovatz: Tahin factory, Darağaç. Pırına, soap, oil, at Mersinli.
Maganioti: Alcohol factory, in Izmir.
Kaburopoulo: Alcohol factory, in Izmir.
Macropoulo: Tobacco factory.
Issigonis18: Steam powered flour mills, automotive, at Darağaç.
C. Mıssır: Ice factory, in Izmir.
Guiffray: Textile factory.
P. Vidori: Printing.
Sources: Tanzimat Dönemi Osmanlı Sanayi, Prof. Dr. Rıfat Önsöz (Türkiye İş Bankası Yayınları, 1988)
Osmanlı Sanayi (1913-1915 istatistikleri, Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayını No: 299).
Kararas “Boudja”, Prokopiu, To Seriani Stin Palia Smirni
Indicateurs Commercial, 1898-99 and 1920. Our Levantine Heritage Site.
LAND OWNED BY BOUDJAIOTS - Period 1866 – 1890
Source: Bizim İzmirimiz, Melih Gürsoy (Metis Yayıncılık Ltd. Şti, 1993, Izmir).
I have been pleased to find from Tayfur Göçmenoğlu above mentioned book that many persons of Izmir that I know have a Boudjaiot origin. The beloved late mayor of Izmir, Ahmet Piriştina, who was born in 1952 in a two-store house (no longer in existance) in the street behind the Catholic church of Boudja. Was it the old house of Guiffray? Yüksel Çakmur who was a minister, mayor of Boudja, then of Izmir and lived in Boudja at the street parallel to Dut Sokak. I had from mayor Çakmur full support for the first International Tourism Fairs of 1992-93 in Izmir of which I was the chairman of the organizing committee.
The General Orhan Çevik Bir, is a Boudjaiot. Miss Işılay Saygın, who grew up in Boudja and was a mayor and then minister.
Many other families, besides those I have already mentioned in my Boudja memories as Evliyazade, Alp Arslan whose wife Esma Hanım is still living there in the known house and is interested in the history and the growing of Boudja for which we must be grateful to her. Tayfur Göçmenoğlu reminds us of the Boudjaiot mayors: Tahsin Tezel and the current one Cemil Şeboy.
Well-known doctors are, successor to Dr Aliberti, the Dr Osman Kantarcı, then Dr Hüseyin Meyda, Dr Rukiye Gökgönül, Dr Cengiz Kuday, Dr Levent Kösteni, Dr Ahmet Rıfat Us. The theatre actor Rıza Pekkutsel. The singers Salih Çınar, Harika Avcı, Habib Sefer Olmaç. The Surpriz Hotel owners – Sosyaller. The wine producers, Yengin, Yersun, Todor, Caymaz. A very old family of farmers Şit (Kaleli Ağa). The national team ex football player Özen Yurtçen and many many others.
And then there are those whose stories are lost or yet to be discovered, born in Bouja, forced to leave because of circumstances, shining with their achievements elsewhere, but we still consider Boudjalı, such as the astronomer George C. McVittie - Autobiographical sketch:
Alex Baltazzi, 2007
2 Filipucci: A Filipuzzi, son of Giovanni is mentioned in the Chios Registers de Baptemes Latins (1707 to 1727). Sperco also mentions that Filipucci’s are of Genovese – Chiot origin. As contributors emphasize there are in Izmir more than one family. I knew the family of Mr Antoine Filipucci who had a daughter Mercedes who is married in USA and the other family in Karşıyaka Giacomo Filipucci who was with Air France as manager in Izmir in the 60s - 70s, known in Izmir as Jacky Filipucci, (currently living in Padova/Italy), when I was the Sabena [Belgian airways] manager. Max Baltazzi from the branch George Baltazzi born in Alexandria on 1905, General Director of Shell Greece, married to Yvonne Filipucci (born in 1918) – no children.
3 Athinogeni: A family from Sparta, Greece installed in Izmir as from 1821, a family of bankers, intellectuals and benefactors. George (1836-1908) was the manager of the Banque de Constantinople in Athens, married Maria Skouloudi and had 7 children. One of the daughters Polimnia married a son of Aristide Baltazzi, Theodore (1870-1969) who was widow of Catherina Ralli. A brother of Polimnia was Pavlos Athinogeni (1837-1920), one of the greatest personalities of the Greek community. He was who founded together with Marcopoulo (also from Boudja) the Omiriou Parthenogogio – the private school for girls. Today Namık Kemal Lisesi, I know that there are various different opinions on this location, even amongst Greeks. The information I got firstly from our late contributor Alexandre Tahinci, who was also with us in the beginning of Karavan Travel, our esteemed Chief Accountant, was that Namık Kemal Lisesi (my house is just opposite of it) was the Greek school for the wealthy girls and the Atatürk Lisesi , the State Kentriko Parthenogogion for girls. In some books and in modern tourist guides, the Namık Kemal is shown as Evangeliki Scholi. Alexandre Tahinci said that one part of the buildings could had been operated as a section of Evangeliki and the other as Omirion.
4 Fotiadi: A Boudja branch of a family of intellectuals devoted to the sciences and culture. Petros Fotiadi (born in Izmir on 1857, living in Boudja and died in Athens on 1927) studied at Evangeliki School, Athens University and in Paris. A law dictator, lawyer at the foreign consulates of Izmir, a specialist of law, a writer and a professor of the Old Greek Law at the University of Athens. Helen Baltazzi (1860-1884), daughter of Spiridone Baltazzi (1826-1867), married Stefano Fotiadi (1854-1918) and had as son the Greek-French writer Costantino Fotiadi and Smaragda Fotiadi, a Catholic nun. The Phanar branch of the Fotiadis is like the Baltazzis related to Vogoridi Pacha and Musurus Pacha families. The Vogoridis (Bulgarian) and Musurus (Greek) families each had more than one Pacha.
5 Areali - Dubrovich: Antonios A. Areali (1865-1919), one of the most brilliant lawyers of Izmir. The origin of the family is Venetian, who went to Kithno. He married Johana, daughter of the Austrian (Dalmatian) Edmondo Dobrovitch (1886-1948) says Kararas. But in the same time at the end of the book, mentioning the few Greeks remaining, he says that there is a Greek Maria married to an Italian Poli Dubrovich. Is he of same family of my maternal grand mother Antoinetta Dubrovich? I do not know exactly. My mother was saying that they had Austrian passports but all the Italians of this region had names ending with ich and had Austrian nationality.
6 Baltazzi: Other than the Demostene Baltazzi Bey and Maria Sevastopoulo Family, Kararas mentions two other Baltazzi families who stayed in Boudja. Themistocles (1824-1894) son of George Baltazzi (1793-1850) banker married to Roza Ekizler, no children. He represented the Austrian Izmir Community at the wedding of François – Joseph II in Vienna and was honoured with the title Ritter (Knight). His brother Pericles born in 1835 died in Boudja at 25.11.1908 – in the trade and banking married Artemision Moraitini (Also a Boudja family) born 1839, died in Boudja at 1909. They had 2 children. Helen (1857-1928) married to Nicholas Casdagli and George (1868-1922) married Hericlia Mavrocordato (1866-1926). I have very little information on the Moraitini family, I learned from the site that a Mrs Moraitini was in the list of the British protestant community of Smyrna (1898). Furthermore that Christophe Moraitini (Austrian) was on the board of the first municipal council of Izmir (1868) Ref: Marie-Carmen Smirnelis, Une Société Hors de Soi, Ed. Peeters, Leuven 2005.
In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, there is a mention of Aristide Moraitini, (1806-1875) born in Izmir, educated in France, then in Greece, member of the Russian party served for short periods as Prime Minister in 1863 and 1868. There is also another Aristide Moraitini born in 1891 (probably Athens), a military hero in Navy and in Air Forces, multi-decorated by Greece and Great Britain. He died in 1918 in an airplane crash. However at this stage it is not clear if and how these two Moraitinis are related to those of Boudja.
7 Hors: A Bavarian origin family mentioned by Kararas. The first Hors came to Athens in 1833 with King Othon and was doctor of the Royal Palace. Married to a Greek, the children became Orthodox. One of the sons Dimitrio came to Izmir as a doctor. He had a daughter married to doctor Valetta and a son George who married Anna, daughter of Baron Conzenbach a Swiss archaeologist of Izmir. They had 3 children. One of them, Dimitrio, serving in the Greek Army, was killed in the 1922 war at Edremit.
8 Horafa (Chorafa): As noted the name due to the connection Villa Horafa / Villa Borghese is intriguing for me. Kararas mentions a Horafa in Boudja who was the father of Nadia Horafa (a well-known actress in Athens), Sturdza dans les Grandes Familles de Grece, de Constantinople et d’Albanie mentions Horafa, also spelt as Corafa and adds that there is a flattering tradition in the family that they are descending from a noble Napolitan of the lineage of the Princes of Caraffa presently in Cefalonia, and who became Venetian counts. A mention of Smyrna is only made in reference to Giorgio Corafa who had been called by the King of Naples to raise a Macedonian regiment with Greeks from Taranto to Smyrna, then became Vice-King of Sicily. I do not know what connection they really have with those of Boudja, and the Borghese. The specialists could possibly find the villa of Horafas which later became of the Keuns / Borghese one. As in Izmir, where the house on the seafront belonged to the Keuns but was named mostly Borghese, possibly because it could sound “better” for the Italian “patriots” of this period? I do not know of course if the inheritance of these properties by the Borghese is plausible, but as recorded by the fellow contributor Mr De Jongh, I do not think Borghese lived at all in Boudja or Izmir, but Keuns certainly did. Or simply it is a nickname the Horafa villa that had similarities with the Villa Borghese of Rome? But on the other hand it is a reality that some of the Keuns lived in Boudja and that they were relatives of the Borghese.
9 Maltass: One of the oldest English trader families, established in Izmir (Bornova and Boudja) Sidney Maltass of Smyrna, 1862, won a series of medals in the industrial agricultural produce catagory at the second internation London exhibition. (Ref: Tanzimat Dönemi, Osmanlı Sanayi, Prof. Dr. Rifat Önsöz, Türkiye İş Bankası Yayınları 1988). And recorded in the 1898-99 Indicateur Commercial register, a Maltass John – representant de commerce - in Izmir.
10 Vafiadi: F. Erpi, in his book Buca’da Konut Mimarisi [Domestic Architecture of Boudja] (1838-1934) mentions that the famous Vafiadi as the architect for several houses:
Catalogue 102: Farkouh / Municipality
Catalogue 103: Gavrili / Pengelley
Catalogue 105: ? / Dr K. Yalaz / ?
Catalogue 113: Farkouh ? Alevra ?
This has to be taken into great consideration as he could also be the designer of many other houses, buildings and it is our obligation to find, to know, to inform and preserve them as much as is possible at this stage. Speaking about Vafiadi, it will be fair to consider the Maestria of many architects of old Izmir. The Chiots were famous with Emmanuel Petrocochino and many less known architects and ustas [masters] whose style became history - Sakizlı Evler [Chiot houses] - but let’s revisit Prokopiu in his Iliade, the Seriani Stin Palia Smirni (freely adopted, Alex Baltazzi):
“They say we owe to Roko the Konaki
And to Latri, the Omirio
Elegant like a Palace.
The Bank of Anatolia to Vafiadi
And the New Theatre too
Which shines every night
And at the Quai, the Sporting Club
Great Opera d’Arte of Vitali
Many noble buildings you will see
as this of Purser opposite the station
With an English air”
And there is a long but also a charming promenade amongst the old beautiful houses of Smyrna, Keun, Van der Zee, Narick, Veinoglu, Iliadi, Esayan, Athanasoula, and many others. But this could be another article, why not?
11 Onassis: Although he is not mentioned by Kararas and Prokopiu, Mr de Jongh states that this is an information received directly from Aristotle Onassis, that he is from Boudja. In the business annuary of 1920, Socrates (Aristotle’s father) Onassis is mentioned as a cotton exporter at Büyük Vezir Han Izmir.
12 Clarke: We know that Manoli Hotel’s owner Mr Defterego’s daughter was married to a Clarke and his son Mano with my aunt Maria Baltazzi. I vaguely remember that upon advice of Mano I met in London an old English lady, a relative of Mano who could be a Clarke but I can not remember more than that as I was very embarrassed as the gift (a Turkish ceramic plate) I brought her had broken in my suitcase. Leon Kontente in his Smyrne et l’Occident mentions of a J. Clarke in the factories of machines a vapeur [steam] competitor to Issigonis. And there is an Edouard Clarke in the business annuary of 1920 as a trader in automotive products. I do not know if the Clarkes in Izmir today who are traders of dried fruits are of the same family.
Evelyn Lyle Kalças, mentions of Clarkes who owned the Charnaud of house of Bournabat, that their grandfather came to Smyrna in the mid 1800 as a postmaster general.
13 Aliotti: One of the most prominent Italian Levantine families. According to Willy Sperco “Les Anciennes Familles Italiennes de Turquie”, they are from Florence and were in Chios in 1682. The first activities of Aliotti brothers in Izmir (mentioned also in the indicateur of 1898 – 1899) is trade, export of raisins, figs, tobacco, hububat? and they had hans in Izmir. According to my friend the writer Yaşar Aksoy (Karşıyaka), Albert Aliotti, founder of the Oriental Carpet Company, built the house with the famous gardens in Boudja which was sold in 1926 to Sarıgölü Hasanağa who came from Ödemiş. Later on the Carpet Company merged with the Oriental Carpet Manufacturers and one of the heirs Enrico went to Iran to manage the Iranian branch of the Company. The Aliottis were great benefactors of churches, hospitals and received many honours from Italy. In the 1950s there was a branch living in Bornova. Sylvana Aliotti was on our group of friends. Later they left I think for Rome. Enrico Aliotti, who I also knew was the President of the Italian Chamber of Commerce of Istanbul, retired and left Istanbul for Monaco where he told me he lives with his son.
14 Sperco: The Spercos, an old Genovese / Chiot family installed in Turkey. The Spercos had a very strong Mediterranean Shipping Agencies Network and I think there is still in Italy some agencies of this name. As Mr Edward De Jongh mentions in his recollections, the De Jongh House of Boudja was sold to Charles Sperco. I knew of the airplane crash on which he later died. Mr and Mrs Charles Sperco’s son Bill (Guigliemo) Sperco, was my dear late friend who lived in Izmir. On the death of Charles Sperco the shipping agency of Izmir had been taken over by the Duthils. Bill had a very fragile health and consequently a very difficult character to cope with. I played tennis with him. He would tell me that while he was in Italy for his studies he played football in a Juventus team. He was single, living alone and employed by NATO. I was close to him and he frequently visited our home. I believe he appreciated my friendship, I was the first he asked to call from the hospital when he had the mortal accident, a car had hit him. It is now about 15 years ago since he died. I met his sister Vera at the cemetery of Soğukkuyu (Karşıyaka) for the funeral where he is buried in the family tomb. Peace to his aristocratic soul. The Levantine writer Willy Sperco, who lived in Istanbul was his relative.
15 Spartali: A prominent Armenian family, in the indicateur commercial of 1898-1899 we see: Spartali brothers, traders, manufacturers. Bankers and insurance agents at Spartali Han (local) at Şeytan Çarşı of Izmir. Spartali T.A. and Co. Traders, Oriental Carpets, at the Saatlı Ferhane – Quais of Izmir. Tekvor Spartali lived in Boudja at the ex-Baltazzi House. I have no knowledge why Demostene Baltazzi sold the house to Tekvor. One plausible reason could be that Demostene’s wife Maria died very young at the age of 26 and he was deeply involved in archaeology and museums and although he made some requests for a bigger museum in Izmir (we have recently repeated our plea for a mega local museum) in this period there was only the Evangelic School’s one, his activities required his presence in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum of which he later became the Conservateur. He then took a house in Istanbul where he died in 1896. I also ignore the reasons why Spartali sold the house. The Ottoman economics and politics had their ups and downs and this influenced everybody in the banking and trade sector.
16 Livio Missir de Lusignan: From an Italian family of Boudja – origin Persian Catholic, he lived in Boudja and left after his university studies around 1960 for Belgium and worked at important commissions for the E.U., writer, a specialist on genealogy and on –using his terminology- the Latin families of Orient, many books and articles. His researches on genealogy revealed he was a descendant (I think from the maternal side) of the Lusignans. A little older than me, he lives in Brussels. We were all shocked to learn late last year (Sept 2006) of the murder of his son Alessandro and wife in Rabat, Morocco. Alessandro was a brilliant diplomat. We could only share this great sorrow presenting our condolences to the family including the children of the late couple and two sisters of Livio living in Izmir, Lea Melini and Gabriela Galico.
17 Triches: Mr Benito Triches is from an old Italian family of Izmir (they had a big house in the Mesudiye Caddesi, today Kıbrıs Şehitleri, on the way to the Nun’s school- not existing today), originated from Venice, his mother is from the family Tito - origin Trani (Italy), the maternal grand father of Benito, Mr Gennaro Tito and his partners N. Scogliarino, E. Epidatos, V. Delerno made a contract valid as from 1898 to 1913 with the Compagnie Ottomane des Eaux de Smyrne for the delivery of city water. Mr Benito Triches, hunter and intellectual, now retired (a little older than me) was in the printing industry together with Mr Charles Micaleff who is the husband of his sister. Benito is married to Pierette Fantasia, an Italian Genovese origin family, her mother from a French origin family Batti. They all live in Alsancak.
18 Issigonis: From the book by Leon Kontente: Smyrne et l’Occident: L’histoire intégrale d’une ville Levantine [Smyrna and the West: An intergral history of a Levantine city] - segment & review - (page: 513) La Fabrique de Dymo Issigonis etablie a la Pointe en 1854 employait a cette epoque environ 70 ouvriers et produisait des machines a vapeur, des presses hydrauliques, des pompes, des chaudieres a vapeur ainsi que des installations completes pour moulins de toutes sortes et meme vers la fin du siecle, des moteurs a explosion. La fabrique Issigonis etait considéree comme la plus moderne et la mieux equipée de l’Empire Ottoman. Ses concurrents principaux seront anglais: G.P. Papps, Smith, Biejerring, Rankin & Demas, S. Watkins, J. Clarke, Rice Brothers et Westland. [The Engineering factory of Issigonis established at Punta in 1854 employed at this time approximately 70 workmen and produced steam engines, hydraulic presses, pumps, steam boilers as well as complete installations for mills of all kinds and towards the end of the century, spark-ignition engines. The Issigonis factory was considered to be the most modern and best equipped one in the Ottoman Empire. Its principal competitors were the English firms: G.P. Papps, Smith, Biejerring, Rankin & Demas, S. Watkins, J. Clarke, Rice Brothers and Westland]. These Issigonis factories were nationalised during the First World War and the Issigonis family, British citizen (of Greek origin), emigrated to London in 1922, arriving destitute, however the young son Alec Issigonis became one of the foremost car designers of Britain, and his icon the ‘mini’ is still in production in a modified form.
Picture of the Issigonis factory from the Indicateur Commercial 1898-1899 (the Greek text reads: “Factories D. Issigonis, Founded in 1854, The Oldest and the Biggest in Anatolia, Industrial Enterprises”.
Click here for more views of old Boudja
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s article based on his personal memoriees of Boudja
Click here for a segment of Nikos Kararas’s book on old Boudja: “Boutzas: the flower village of Smyrni”.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Paradiso / Şirinyer.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Cordelio / Karşıyaka.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Bournabat / Bornova.
Click here for Mr Baltazzi’s companion article on the heritage of Bayraklı / Turan and region.